List of Genocides, Cultural Genocides and Ethnic Cleansings under Islam

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This article is a dynamic list of genocides, cultural genocides and acts of ethnic cleansing under Muslim regimes from the origin of Islam to present day.

Mutual population exchanges, massacres and war crimes involving non-Muslims and Muslims (such as Greece–Turkey, India–Pakistan or Israel–Palestine) are excluded from this list.

The Main Table[edit]

Key:

  • No color: Non-Muslims targeted
  • Light green: Predominantly Muslims targeted
  • Orange: Both Muslims and Non-Muslims targeted
  • Dark green: Mainly Shia perpetrators
No. Victims Region Country Who was Responsible Period Notes
1 Arab polytheists Arabian peninsula Saudi Arabia Flag of Saudi Arabia.png 600s AD
2 Jews Arabian peninsula 600s AD
3 Christians Arabian peninsula 600s AD
Traditional Berber religion North Africa Arab Muslims 647 onwards
Berber Christians Algeria Umayyad Caliphate[1] 647 onwards
Zoroastrians Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png, Iraq Flag of Iraq.png Arab and Persian Muslims 642-early 10th century [2][3][4]
Hindus Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png
Buddhists Kabul valley, Bamiyan etc. Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Saffarid dynasty 9th century AD [5]
Dards Kashmir and northern Pakistan India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Arab invaders, Swat princely state c. 700 AD and 1858-1969 Most Dards were converted to Islam[6][7]
Turgesh Turks, Sogdians Transoxiana Uzbekistan Flag of Uzbekistan.png, Tajikistan Flag of Tajikistan.png, Kyrgyzstan Flag of Kyrgyzstan.png Umayyad Caliphate 721 onwards The culture and heritage of the Sogdians was destroyed so thoroughly that it is almost impossible to reconstruct their history.[8] In the post-Umayyad period, Islam had firmly penetrated here.
Coptic Christians Egypt Flag of Egypt.png Caliph al-Mamun and Muslim mobs c.832-837 In a clash between Spanish Muslim invaders and Egyptian Muslims, Copts supported the former. So they were punished by looting and destruction of churches. The caliph also put down their rebellion by massacring them. Many monks were killed and monasteries destroyed in later years.[9]
Buddhists, proto-Iranian Hindus, Shamanists, Manichaeans Xinjiang province Western China Flag of China.png Kara Khanids[10] 900s to 1500s There were centuries-long attacks in this region.[11] Buddhist monuments and artefacts were also destroyed on a large scale. The area was largely Islamized.
Hindus and Buddhists Gandhara Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Mahmud of Ghazni 998-1030 Mass conversions and coercions.[12]
Hindus India Flag of India.png Various Muslim invaders and rulers 1000-1525 The Hindu population of India fell by an estimated 60 to 80 million in this period.[13][14][15] Detailed analyses of this event and the casualties are rare.
Jews Siege of Cordoba Spain Flag of Spain.png Berber Muslims led by Umayyad ruler 1013 The inhabitants of Cordoba including Jews were massacred and looted. It is said that 2000 of them were killed.[16][17][18][19]
Jews Fez Morocco Flag of Morocco.png Berber soldiers 1033 In this pogrom, Muslims killed more than 6000 Jews and took away their women and belongings.[20][21][22][23]


Ismaili Shias Sindh, in the Indian subcontinent present-day Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Mahmud of Ghazni 1025 Mahmud defeated the Shia ruler and slaughtered many Ismailis.[24][25]
Serer religion Tekrur Senegal Flag of Senegal.png Gambia Flag of Gambia.png and nearby areas King War Jabi, his Almoravid allies and many other African Muslims 1035-1867 The Serer were under pressure to embrace Islam for centuries. An unknown number of them died in these jihads but many of them scattered.[26][27][28][29][30]
Armenian Christians Ani Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan 1064 Part of the Muslim conquest of Anatolia.[31][32]
Jews Granada Spain Flag of Spain.png 1066 Muslims crucified the Jewish vizier and massacred most of the Jewish population of the city.[33][34]
Jews Maghreb and Andalusia Morocco Flag of Morocco.png, Spain Flag of Spain.png (southern), Portugal Flag of Portugal.png, Tunisia Flag of Tunisia.png Almohad Caliphate 1126-1269 Jews were expelled, killed or forced to convert to Islam.[35][36][37]
Jains India Flag of India.png Various Muslim invaders 1100s-1600s The Jains are a non-violent religion. Muslims killed many Jains, destroyed many of their temples and idols, looted their treasures, and burnt books. This persecution was frequent till the 17th century.[38][39][40]
Buddhists Bihar India Flag of India.png Bakhtiyar Khilji c.1197-1203 Famous Buddhist monasteries and universities were also destroyed[41][42][43]
Christians Anatolia Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Muslim Turks
Buddhists Maldives Flag of Maldives.png c. 1200s onwards
Kanuri people Kanem empire Chad Flag of Chad.png, Nigeria Flag of Nigeria.png, Cameroon Flag of Cameroon.png Dunama Dabbalemi 1203 to 1243 All Kanuris converted to Islam as a result of a jihad.[44][45]
Mongol converts to Islam[46] Delhi India Flag of India.png Alauddin Khilji 1298 15,000-30,000 were killed
Assyrian Christians Irbil/Arbela Iraq Flag of Iraq.png Kurds and Arabs 1310 After the siege of Irbil, about 150,000 of its Christians were massacred.[47][48]
Hindus Kashmir India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Sikandar Butshikan 1389-1413 [49][50]
Coptic Christians Egypt Flag of Egypt.png Mamluk Sultanate 1300s-1517 Rampant discrimination and persecution under the Pact of Umar forced a majority of Copts to convert to Islam.[51] The Mamluks destroyed most of the churches and killed an estimated 300,000 Copts over the 13th century.[52]
Maronites and Greek Orthodox Christians Coast of the Levant Lebanon Flag of Lebanon.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png Mamluk Sultanate 1300s These communities were expelled and their settlements were destroyed.[53]
Nestorian Christians Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Iran Flag of Iran.png, Uzbekistan Flag of Uzbekistan.png Timur 1380s-1405 Timur's raids and slaughters nearly exterminated the followers of the Nestorian Church in the Near East.[54]
Jews Fez Morocco Flag of Morocco.png 1465 Muslim subjects overthrew the last Marinid ruler who had appointed many Jews to high positions. This had angered many Muslims and was one of the main pretexts for them to massacre the entire Jewish community of Fez.[55][56]
Jews Songhai Empire Mali Flag of Mali.png Askia Mohammad I 1492 Askia decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave. He destroyed their synagogue. Most of the Jews converted to Islam, and intolerance by Malians towards them was reported as recently as the 20th century.[57]
Zoroastrians Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png Persian Muslims under the Safavid dynasty 1502-1747 [58]
Sunnis Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png , Iraq Flag of Iraq.png[59] Azerbaijan Flag of Azerbaijan.png[60] Safavid dynasty 1502-1722
Takkalu tribe Persia Shah Ismail


Shias Kashmir India Flag of India.png 1500s to 1800s [61]
Yazidis Baghdad, Mosul, Diyarbakir, etc. Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png, Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Empire 1500s to 1800s A large Yazidi community existed in Syria, but they declined due to persecution by the Ottoman Empire. Several expeditions were launched against the Yazidis by the Ottoman governors (Wāli) of Diyarbakir, Mosul and Baghdad. The aim of these attacks was forced conversion of Yazidis to Sunni Hanafi Islam.[62][63][64]
Alevis Anatolia Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Selim I 1514 Sultan Selim, nicknamed "Selim the Grim", conducted a massacre of Alevis in 1514. The death toll is said to be 40,000.[65]
Jews Safed present-day Israel Flag of Israel.png Retreating Mamluk army of Egypt and Arab civilians 1517 Jews were evicted from their homes, robbed and plundered, and they fled naked to the villages.[66][67][68][69][70]
Greek Cypriots Nicosia Cyprus Flag of Cyprus.png Ottoman army 1570 20,000 Nicosians were put to death, and every church, public building, and palace was looted. Only women and boys who were captured to be sold as slaves were spared.[71][72][73]
Portuguese India Flag of India.png Shah Jahan 1632 [6] [7] When negotiations with Portuguese merchants broke down, Shah Jahan massacred their men and enslaved 4000 women and children at Hughli in Bengal.[74][75]
Sikhs Punjab India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Aurangzeb[76] 1658 onwards Aurangzeb's frequent persecution of the Sikhs forced their peaceful community to transform into a warrior community.[77][78]
Jews Yemen Flag of Yemen.png Imam of Yemen (Rassid dynasty) 1679–1680 The Jews of nearly all cities and towns in Yemen were exiled to a remote desert and left to die. Their property was also confiscated.[79][80][81][82]
Austrian civilians Perchtoldsdorf Austria Flag of Austria.png Ottoman Empire 1683 [83]
Civilians Delhi India Flag of India.png Nadir Shah 1739 In 7 hours, Nadir Shah had 20,000 men, women and children massacred in an incident termed as Qatl-e-aam in Persian. He also seized a lot of booty.[84][85]
Sikhs India Flag of India.png, Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Mughal Empire vassals and Afghan soldiers 1746-62 [86]


Kashmiri Pandits Kashmir valley India Flag of India.png Afghans 1764-1820s [87]
Mangalorean Catholics Kingdom of Mysore India Flag of India.png Tipu Sultan 1784-1799 This community were driven out of their homes, forced on a death march and kept as captives for 15 years. Many faced tortures, killings and forced conversions. Out of about 60,000 Catholics, at least 30,000 died en route or in captivity.[88] Only 15,000–20,000 made it out as Christians.[89]
Nair Hindus Kingdom of Mysore India Flag of India.png Tipu Sultan Nair Hindus were subjected to forced conversions to Islam, death, and torture.[90][91][92] [93][94] Out of 30,000 Nairs put to captivity (including women and children), only a few hundred returned alive.[95][96]
Zoroastrians Persia Iran Flag of Iran.png Persian Muslims under the Qajar dynasty 1796-1925 Zoroastrians regard this period as one of their worst. They were frequently massacred, taken as captives, robbed, overtaxed, converted or married by force, and denied basic rights.[97][98][99]
Mandaeans Iran Flag of Iran.png Qajar dynasty of Persia 18th and 19th centuries.[100]
Civilians (mostly Shia) Karbala Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 1801 or 1802 The Saudis killed 2,000–5,000 people in a day. They also plundered and destroyed the tomb of Husayn ibn Ali.[101][102][103]
Mamluks Cairo and other places Egypt Flag of Egypt.png Muhammad Ali of Egypt 1805-1811 About 3,000 descendants of this slave-warrior clan were massacred. It was the end of the Mamluks in Egypt.[104]
Melkite Christians Aleppo Syria Flag of Syria.png Ottoman Empire 1817-18 Most of this community fled from Syria and those who stayed were massacred.[105][106]
Bektashis Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II 1826 The Bektashi order was outlawed and 4,000 to 7,500 of them were executed. Their shrines were destroyed.[107]
Assyrian Christians Bohtan and Hakkari Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Badr Khan and Nurallah of Hakkari 1843-47 More than 1000 Christians were killed.[108] The Muslim armies destroyed several villages and took prisoners as war booty.[109]
Jews Throughout the Middle East and North Africa 1840-1908 Following the Damascus affair, riots and massacres of Jews occurred in Aleppo (1850, 1875), Damascus (1840, 1848, 1890), Beirut (1862, 1874), Dayr al-Qamar (1847), Jerusalem (1847), Cairo (1844, 1890, 1901–02), Mansura (1877), Alexandria (1870, 1882, 1901–07), Port Said (1903, 1908), Damanhur (1871, 1873, 1877, 1891), Istanbul (1870, 1874), Buyukdere (1864), Kuzguncuk (1866), Eyub (1868), Edirne (1872), Izmir (1872, 1874).[110]
Jews Mashhad, Barfurush Iran Flag of Iran.png 1839, 1867 Mashhad witnessed forced conversions of Jews to Islam to avert a massarce. In Barfurush, Jews were massacred.[110][111]
Bábís Iran Flag of Iran.png 1852 [112]
Polytheists Kafiristan Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png 1890s
Hazara Shias Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Pashtuns 1888-90, 1892, 1893 The emir Abdul Rehman eliminated an estimated 60% of the Hazara population by massacres, enslavement, looting and pillaging of homes.[113] Many of the survivors fled.[114][115]
Armenians and Assyrians Eastern Turkey Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Empire
Kurdish and Turkoman irregulars
1894–1896 100,000–300,000 were killed.[116]
Serbs Kolašin and other areas[117] Kosovo Flag of Kosovo.png (present day) Albanians under the Ottoman Empire 1901 The Serbs were targeted in several massacres, rapes, looting and eviction.[118][119]
Uighur Christians Xinjiang China Flag of China.png First East Turkestan Republic 1894-1938 Most Uighur converts to Christianity were killed, tortured and jailed.[120][121][122] Some Hindus were murdered and Christian missionaries were expelled.[123]
Ahmediyyas Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Kings of Afghanistan 1900-1924 Ahmediyyas, a small minority in Afghanistan, were exterminated from there by killings and forced conversions to Sunni Islam.[124][125][126][127]
Jews Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png 1900s-1951 The Afghan Jewish community declined from about 40,000 in the early 20th Century to 5,000 in 1934.[128] Many Jews were expelled from their homes and robbed of their property.[129][130][131][132] After 1951, most Jews moved to Israel and the United States.[133]
Armenians Adana Vilayet Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire 1909 15,000–30,000 were killed.[134][135]
Bulgarians Thrace Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Young Turk government under the Ottoman Empire 1913 50,000–60,000 Thracian Bulgarians were murdered, which was around 20 % of the Bulgarian population in Thrace at that time. Most of the villages with a Bulgarian population were destroyed and the survivors expelled from their places of origin.[136][137]
Maronite Christians Mount Lebanon Lebanon Flag of Lebanon.png Ottoman Empire 1915-1918 The Ottomans deliberately cut off food supplies to the Maronites in order to feed their military.[138]
Assyrian Christians Turkey Flag of Turkey.png, Iran Flag of Iran.png[139] 1914-1918 200,000 to 275,000 were killed.[140][141] About half of the Assyrian population in the Ottoman Empire perished.[142]
Armenians Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Ottoman Empire, Young Turks 1915-1918 or 1923 An estimated 600,000–1,800,000 Armenians were systematically massacred.[143][144] The Turkish government currently denies the genocide. Considered the first modern genocide by scholars.
Kurds Zilan river valley Turkey Flag of Turkey.png 1930 [8]
Jews Thrace Turkey Flag of Turkey.png Turkish mobs 1934 The Thrace pogroms of Jews occurred in four cities. 1500 Jews fled the region and many soon left Turkey. Casualties unknown.[145][146]
Alevi Kurds Dersim Turkey Flag of Turkey.png 1937-38 13,000-40,000 killed.[147]
Tibetans Qinghai Province China Flag of China.png Ma Bufang and his Muslim soldiers 1932-41 The motive was ethnic cleansing of Tibetans and destruction of their culture, resulting in thousands of casualties.[148][149][150][151][152]


Hindus Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png 1947-present
Hindus Bangladesh Flag of Bangladesh.png 1947-present


Christians[153] Pakistan Flag of Pakistan.png Pakistani Muslim civilians and terrorists 2000s-present In recent decades, Pakistani Christians have increasingly become victims of riots, bombings, church demolitions and imprisonment on mere allegations of blasphemy.
Egyptian Jews Egypt Flag of Egypt.png 1948-1957
Iraqi and Kurdish Jews Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 1941 and 1950s-1969 [154] See also: [9]
Harkis Algeria Flag of Algeria.png An estimated 30,000 (and possibly as many as 150,000) Muslim supporters of the French colonizers were killed.[155][156][157]
Igbo people Nigeria Flag of Nigeria.png Hausa and Fulani tribes (both Muslim) 1966 10,000 to 30,000 Igbos were killed.[158][159] These events led to a civil war.[160]
Bihari Muslims and West Pakistanis Bangladesh Flag of Bangladesh.png Mukti Bahini militias and other Bengali Muslims 1971-72 About 30,000-200,000 were killed, during and after the war of independence of Bangladesh.[161][162][163][164]
East Timor Flag of East Timor.png Indonesia Flag of Indonesia.png 1975-1999 Described as a genocide
Chakma, Marma, Tripuri and other indigenous people Chittagong Hill Tracts Bangladesh Flag of Bangladesh.png Bangladeshi army and Muslim settlers 1977-1997 [165][166]
Dinka people Diein Sudan Flag of Sudan.png Rizeigat Muslims 1987 [167][168]
Kashmiri Pandits and other Hindus Kashmir valley India Flag of India.png Kashmiri Muslim mobs and Pakistani terrorists 1989-2001
Kurds Iraqi Kurdistan Iraq Flag of Iraq.png Saddam Hussein 1986-89 50,000-182,000 civilians killed.[169][170]
Isaaq clan (Muslim) of Somalis Somalia Flag of Somalia.png Siad Barre 1988-1990 50,000-100,000 killed (possibly up to 200,000)[171][172][173][174]
Bantu people (Christians, Muslims and Traditional African religion) Jubba Valley Somalia Flag of Somalia.png Somali militias 1991 onwards [175]
Hazara Shias Mazar-e-Sharif, Bamiyan Afghanistan Flag of Afghanistan.png Taliban 1998 More than 8,000 noncombatants were reported killed after the Taliban captured the city.[176] Even goats and donkeys were not spared.[177]
Serbian Christians Kosovo Flag of Kosovo.png 1999-2004 Many Serbs were expelled from entire villages and churches and symbols of Serb heritage were destroyed in this period.[178][179][180]
Muslim Roma, Ashkalis and purported Egyptians Kosovo Flag of Kosovo.png Albanian Muslims 1999 onwards The persecution of these communities began during the Yugoslav wars but escalated after 1999. Most of them were expelled from Kosovo and their houses were destroyed.[181][182]
Non-Arab and Black tribes (Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa) Darfur Sudan Flag of Sudan.png Omar al-Bashir and janjaweed militias 2003-present
Christians Somalia Flag of Somalia.png Al Shabab 2005 onwards [183]


Christians Palestine Flag of Palestine.png Hamas, Muslim mobs, Islamic terorrist groups 2002 onwards Muslims targeted Christians frequently in West Bank and Gaza, burning churches and grabbing properties. The Christian population fell from about 3,000 in 2007 to 1,400 in 2011. They were also the target of bomb attacks, murders and discrimination under Hamas rule.[184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191]
Mandaeans Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 2003 onwards [192]


Assyrian Christians Iraq Flag of Iraq.png 1933-2014 [193][194][195]


Yazidis Iraqi Kurdistan Iraq Flag of Iraq.png ISIS 2014-
Arab Christians, Levantines, Armenians, Arameans, Assyrians (Syriacs or Chaldeans) and Copts Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png, Libya Flag of Libya.png ISIS 2014- At least 1000 casualties.[196] Described as a genocide by EU.[197][198][199][200]
Shias (including ethnic Turkmen and Shabak) Iraq Flag of Iraq.png, Syria Flag of Syria.png ISIS 2014-Present [201][202]


Christians and Muslims Nigeria Flag of Nigeria.png Boko Haram 2014-present [203][204]
Coptic Christians North Sinai Egypt Flag of Egypt.png ISIS Feb 2017-present [205][206][207]

Miscellaneous[edit]

  • The Serbian church was persecuted for centuries under Turkish rule and severely weakened by the 18th century. This caused an out-migration of many Serbs from their native region and also a failed revolt.[208]
  • Since mid-1980s, more than 20,000 Shia Muslims and hundreds of Ahmadis have been killed in Pakistan by Sunni terrorists sponsored by generals of Pakistan Army.[209]

References[edit]

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  2. Stepaniants 2002, p. 163
  3. Boyce 2001, p. 148
  4. Dr. Daryush Jahanian, "The History of Zoroastrians After Arab Invasion", European Centre for Zoroastrian Studies (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20090414093548/http://www.gatha.org/english/articles/000258.html. 
  5. Hamid Wahed Alikuzai, A Concise History of Afghanistan in 25 Volumes, Volume 14 Trafford Publishing, 2013. 1490714413. p.120
  6. "Swat: an Afghan society in Pakistan : urbanisation and change in tribal environment", City Press, https://books.google.com/books?id=p_9tAAAAMAAJ&q=dard+people+swati&dq=dard+people+swati&lr=&cd=1. 
  7. "Living in the high mountain valleys, the Nuristani retained their ancient culture and their religion, a form of ancient Hinduism with many customs and rituals developed locally. Certain deities were revered only by one tribe or community, but one deity was universally worshipped by all Nuristani as the Creator, the Hindu god Yama Raja, called imr'o or imra by the Nuristani tribes. Around 700 CE, Arab invaders swept through the region now known as Afghanistan, destroying or forcibly converting the population to their new Islamic religion. Refugees from the invaders fled into the higher valleys to escape the onslaught. In their mountain strongholds, the Nuristani escaped conversion conversion to Islam and retained their ancient religion and culture. The surrounding Muslim peoples used the name Kafir, meaning "unbeliever" or "infidel," to describe the independent Nuristani tribes and called their highland homeland Kafiristan.", Minahan, James B., "Ethnic Groups of North, East, and Central Asia: An Encyclopedia" (in English), ABC-CLIO, p. 205, ISBN 9781610690188 
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  40. "The rich body of medieval Jain literature is notable for its strident assertion of the power of the faith and images to withstand the Islamic onslaught. Images that had retreated or gone into exile reappear more powerful than ever, and even those mutilated reveal increased ability to perform miracles. Jain literature discusses the entire gamut of problems related to image worship in the medieval era, including the appropriate medium in which to fashion icons in times of Muslim threat, the sufferings of the true faith in an age of declining virtue, the necessity of hiding images for safety, the divine order to unearth images and resume their worship, the smashing of images by “those wicked Muslims” and their final restitution through the agency of a devotee.", Jain, Meenakshi, "Review of Romila Thapar’s Somanatha: The Many Voices of a History", The Pioneer, 21 March 2004 (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/web/20170630173749/http://hindureview.com/2004/04/20/review-romila-thapar%C2%92s-%C2%93somanatha-many-voices-history/ 
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  199. Kaplan, Michael. "ISIS Genocide Against Christians, Yazidis? European Parliament Recognizes Islamic State Targeting Religious Minorities", February 4, 2016. “The European Parliament characterized the persecution as "genocide" Thursday.” 
  200. JOINT MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION, European Parliament.
  201. Harding, Luke; Irbil, Fazel Hawramy, "Isis accused of ethnic cleansing as story of Shia prison massacre emerges", https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/25/isis-ethnic-cleansing-shia-prisoners-iraq-mosul. 
  202. http://europe.newsweek.com/isis-genocide-kerry-yazidis-christians-shia-437944?rm=eu
  203. http://genocidewatch.net/2016/02/09/justice-for-jos-project-and-us-nigeria-law-group-on-boko-haram-attacks/
  204. https://www.naij.com/1097991-catholic-bishop-reveals-boko-haram-killed-500-priests-borno-state.html Archive at [3]
  205. http://web.archive.org/web/20170308101839/http://www.aina.org/news/20170308034228.htm
  206. http://web.archive.org/web/20170309063403/http://www.financialexpress.com/world-news/isis-butchering-egyptian-christians-in-their-own-homes/580189/
  207. http://web.archive.org/web/20170308190158/http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/02/egypt-coptic-christians-flee-sinai-ismailiya-170226154942356.html
  208. John Anthony McGuckin. "Serbian Church Under Ottoman And Habsburg Rule". The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444392548, 2010. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=JmFetR5Wqd8C&pg=PT1111&lpg=PT1111&dq=ottoman+persecution+orthodox&source=bl&ots=SptLtIlsKK&sig=Br-7RQXh6EYrgANkBEv_BGKXz0Y&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjyuqPWkIHVAhUCTI8KHSN8BvAQ6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=ottoman%20persecution%20orthodox&f=false. 
  209. Over the last several decades 6000 Shia children killed in Pakistan + Pic - ABNA, November 18, 2012 See also [4], archived at [5].

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