Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Muhammad's Death

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Qur'an[edit]

69:44-46[edit]

And if he [Muhammad] had fabricated against Us some of the sayings, We would certainly have seized him by the right hand, then We would certainly have cut off his aorta.

Hadith[edit]

Sahih Bukhari[edit]

Narrated 'Aisha: "When the Prophet became seriously ill and his disease became aggravated he asked for permission from his wives to be nursed in my house and he was allowed. He came out with the help of two men and his legs were dragging on the ground. He was between Al-Abbas and another man." 'Ubaid Ullah said, "I told Ibn 'Abbas what 'Aisha had narrated and he said, 'Do you know who was the (second) man whose name 'Aisha did not mention'" I said, 'No.' Ibn 'Abbas said, 'He was 'Ali Ibn Abi Talib.' "
Narrated Anas bin Malik: A Jewess brought a poisoned (cooked) sheep for the Prophet who ate from it. She was brought to the Prophet and he was asked, "Shall we kill her?" He said, "No." I continued to see the effect of the poison on the palate of the mouth of Allah's Apostle .
Narrated 'Aisha and Ibn 'Abbas: On his death-bed Allah's Apostle put a sheet over his-face and when he felt hot, he would remove it from his face. When in that state (of putting and removing the sheet) he said, "May Allah's Curse be on the Jews and the Christians for they build places of worship at the graves of their prophets." (By that) he intended to warn (the Muslim) from what they (i.e. Jews and Christians) had done.
Narrated Ibn Abbas: 'Umar bin Al-Khattab used to let Ibn Abbas sit beside him, so 'AbdurRahman bin 'Auf said to 'Umar, "We have sons similar to him." 'Umar replied, "(I respect him) because of his status that you know." 'Umar then asked Ibn 'Abbas about the meaning of this Holy Verse:-- "When comes the help of Allah and the conquest of Mecca . . ." (110.1)

Ibn 'Abbas replied, "That indicated the death of Allah's Apostle which Allah informed him of." 'Umar said, "I do not understand of it except what you understand."

Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet in his ailment in which he died, used to say, "O 'Aisha! I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaibar, and at this time, I feel as if my aorta is being cut from that poison."
Narrated Ibn Abbas: Thursday! And how great that Thursday was! The ailment of Allah's Apostle became worse (on Thursday) and he said, fetch me something so that I may write to you something after which you will never go astray." The people (present there) differed in this matter, and it was not right to differ before a prophet. Some said, "What is wrong with him ? (Do you think ) he is delirious (seriously ill)? Ask him ( to understand his state )." So they went to the Prophet and asked him again. The Prophet said, "Leave me, for my present state is better than what you call me for." Then he ordered them to do three things. He said, "Turn the pagans out of the 'Arabian Peninsula; respect and give gifts to the foreign delegations as you have seen me dealing with them." (Said bin Jubair, the sub-narrator said that Ibn Abbas kept quiet as rewards the third order, or he said, "I forgot it.") (See Hadith No. 116 Vol. 1))
Narrated Aisha: It was one of the favors of Allah towards me that Allah's Apostle expired in my house on the day of my turn while he was leaning against my chest and Allah made my saliva mix with his saliva at his death. 'Abdur-Rahman entered upon me with a Siwak in his hand and I was supporting (the back of) Allah's Apostle (against my chest ). I saw the Prophet looking at it (i.e. Siwak) and I knew that he loved the Siwak, so I said ( to him ), "Shall I take it for you ? " He nodded in agreement. So I took it and it was too stiff for him to use, so I said, "Shall I soften it for you ?" He nodded his approval. So I softened it and he cleaned his teeth with it. In front of him there was a jug or a tin, (The sub-narrator, 'Umar is in doubt as to which was right) containing water. He started dipping his hand in the water and rubbing his face with it, he said, "None has the right to be worshipped except Allah. Death has its agonies." He then lifted his hands (towards the sky) and started saying, "With the highest companion," till he expired and his hand dropped down.
Narrated Urwa: 'Aisha said, "Allah's Apostle in his fatal illness, used to ask, 'Where will I be tomorrow? Where will I be tomorrow?", seeking 'Aisha's turn. His wives allowed him to stay wherever he wished. So he stayed at 'Aisha's house till he expired while he was with her." 'Aisha added, "The Prophet expired on the day of my turn in my house and he was taken unto Allah while his head was against my chest and his saliva mixed with my saliva." 'Aisha added, "Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr came in, carrying a Siwak he was cleaning his teeth with. Allah's Apostle looked at it and I said to him, 'O 'AbdurRahman! Give me this Siwak.' So he gave it to me and I cut it, chewed it (it's end) and gave it to Allah's Apostle who cleaned his teeth with it while he was resting against my chest."
Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet expired in my house and on the day of my turn, leaning against my chest. One of us (i.e. the Prophet's wives ) used to recite a prayer asking Allah to protect him from all evils when he became sick. So I started asking Allah to protect him from all evils (by reciting a prayer ). He raised his head towards the sky and said, "With the highest companions, with the highest companions." 'Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr passed carrying a fresh leaf-stalk of a date-palm and the Prophet looked at it and I thought that the Prophet was in need of it (for cleaning his teeth ). So I took it (from 'Abdur Rahman) and chewed its head and shook it and gave it to the Prophet who cleaned his teeth with it, in the best way he had ever cleaned his teeth, and then he gave it to me, and suddenly his hand dropped down or it fell from his hand (i.e. he expired). So Allah made my saliva mix with his saliva on his last day on earth and his first day in the Hereafter.
Narrated 'Aisha: Abu Bakr came from his house at As-Sunh on a horse. He dismounted and entered the Mosque, but did not speak to the people till he entered upon 'Aisha and went straight to Allah's Apostle who was covered with Hibra cloth (i.e. a kind of Yemenite cloth). He then uncovered the Prophet's face and bowed over him and kissed him and wept, saying, "Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you. By Allah, Allah will never cause you to die twice. As for the death which was written for you, has come upon you."

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: Abu Bakr went out while Umar bin Al-Khattab was talking to the people. Abu Bakr said, "Sit down, O 'Umar!" But 'Umar refused to sit down. So the people came to Abu Bakr and left Umar. Abu Bakr said, "To proceed, if anyone amongst you used to worship Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but if (anyone of) you used to worship Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die. Allah said:--"Muhammad is no more than an Apostle, and indeed (many) apostles have passed away before him..(till the end of the Verse )......Allah will reward to those who are thankful." (3.144) By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this Verse before till Abu Bakr recited it and all the people received it from him, and I heard everybody reciting it (then).

Narrated Az-Zuhri: Said bin Al-Musaiyab told me that 'Umar said, "By Allah, when I heard Abu Bakr reciting it, my legs could not support me and I fell down at the very moment of hearing him reciting it, declaring that the Prophet had died."
Narrated 'Aisha: that during his fatal ailment, Allah's Apostle, used to ask his wives, "Where shall I stay tomorrow? Where shall I stay tomorrow?" He was looking forward to Aisha's turn. So all his wives allowed him to stay where he wished, and he stayed at 'Aisha's house till he died there. 'Aisha added: He died on the day of my usual turn at my house. Allah took him unto Him while his head was between my chest and my neck and his saliva was mixed with my saliva.

Sahih Muslim[edit]

Anas reported that a Jewess came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) with poisoned mutton and he took of that what had been brought to him (Allah's Messenger). (When the effect of this poison were felt by him) he called for her and asked her about that, whereupon she said: I had determined to kill you. Thereupon he said: Allah will never give you the power to do it. He (the narrator) said that they (the Companion's of the Holy Prophet) said: Should we not kill her? Thereupon he said: No. He (Anas) said: I felt (the affects of this poison) on the uvula of Allah's Messenger.
Anas b. Malik reported that a Jewess brought poisoned meat and then served it to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him)

Abu Dawud[edit]

Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin: By Allah, we did not know whether we should take off the clothes of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) as we took off the clothes of our dead, or wash him while his clothes were on him. When they (the people) differed among themselves, Allah cast slumber over them until every one of them had put his chin on his chest. Then a speaker spoke from a side of the house, and they did not know who he was: Wash the Prophet (peace be upon him) while his clothes are on him. So they stood round the Prophet (peace be upon him) and washed him while he had his shirt on him. They poured water on his shirt, and rubbed him with his shirt and not with their hands. Aisha used to say: If I had known beforehand about my affair what I found out later, none would have washed him except his wives.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) was shrouded in three garments made in Najran: two garments and one shirt in which he died.
Narrated Amir: Ali, Fadl and Usamah ibn Zayd washed the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and they put him in his grave. Marhab or Ibn AbuMarhab told me that they also made AbdurRahman ibn Awf join them. When Ali became free, he said: The People of the man serve him.
Narrated Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn AbuBakr: I said to Aisha! Mother, show me the grave of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and his two Companions (Allah be pleased with them). She showed me three graves which were neither high nor low, but were spread with soft red pebbles in an open space.
Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah: Ibn Shihab said: Jabir ibn Abdullah used to say that a Jewess from the inhabitants of Khaybar poisoned a roasted sheep and presented it to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) who took its foreleg and ate from it. A group of his companions also ate with him.

The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then said: Take your hands away (from the food). The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then sent someone to the Jewess and he called her.

He said to her: Have you poisoned this sheep? The Jewess replied: Who has informed you? He said: This foreleg which I have in my hand has informed me. She said: Yes. He said: What did you intend by it? She said: I thought if you were a prophet, it would not harm you; if you were not a prophet, we should rid ourselves of him (i.e. the Prophet). The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then forgave her, and did not punish her. But some of his companions who ate it, died. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) had himself cupped on his shoulder on account of that which he had eaten from the sheep. AbuHind cupped him with the horn and knife. He was a client of Banu Bayadah from the Ansar.
Narrated AbuSalamah: A Jewess presented a roasted sheep to the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) at Khaybar.

He then mentioned the rest of the tradition like that of Jabir (No. 4495). He said: Then Bashir ibn al-Bara' ibn Ma'rur al-Ansari died. He sent someone to call on the Jewess, and said to her (when she came): What motivated you to do the work you have done? He then mentioned the rest of the tradition similar to the one mentioned by Jabir (No. 4495).

The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then ordered regarding her and she was killed. But he (AbuSalamah) did not mention the matter of cupping.
Narrated AbuSalamah: Muhammad ibn Amr said on the authority of AbuSalamah, and he did not mention the name of AbuHurayrah: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) used to accept presents but not alms (sadaqah).

This version adds: So a Jewess presented him at Khaybar with a roasted sheep which she had poisoned. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) ate of it and the people also ate.

He then said: Take away your hands (from the food), for it has informed me that it is poisoned. Bishr ibn al-Bara' ibn Ma'rur al-Ansari died.

So he (the Prophet) sent for the Jewess (and said to her): What motivated you to do the work you have done?

She said: If you were a prophet, it would not harm you; but if you were a king, I should rid the people of you. The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) then ordered regarding her and she was killed. He then said about the pain of which he died: I continued to feel pain from the morsel which I had eaten at Khaybar. This is the time when it has cut off my aorta.
Narrated Umm Mubashshir: Umm Mubashshir said to the Prophet (peace be upon him) during the sickness of which he died: What do you think about your illness, Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him)? I do not think about the illness of my son except the poisoned sheep of which he had eaten with you at Khaybar. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: And I do not think about my illness except that. This is the time when it cut off my aorta.

Sira[edit]

Ibn Ishaq[edit]

When the apostle had rested, Zaynab d. al-Harith, the wife of Sallam b. Mishkam prepared for him a roast lamb, having first inquired what joint he preferred. When she learned that it was the shoulder she put a lot of poison in it and poisoned the whole lamb. Then she brought it in and placed it before him. He took hold of the shoulder and chewed a morsel of it, but he did not swallow it. Bishr b. al-Bara b. Ma’rur who was with him took some of it as the apostle had done, but he swallowed it, while the apostle spat it out, saying, ‘This bone tells me that it is poisoned.’ Then he called for the woman and she confessed, and when he asked her what had induced her to do this she answered: ‘You know what you have done to my people. I said to myself, If he is a king I shall ease myself of him and if he is a prophet he will be informed (of what I have done).’ So the apostle let her off. Bishr died from what he had eaten.
Ibn Ishaq, p. 516
Marwan b. Uthman b. Abu Sa’id b. al-Mu’alla told me: The apostle had said in his illness of which he was to die when Umm Bishr d. al-Bara came to visit him, ‘O Umm Bishr, this is the time in which I feel a deadly pain from what I ate with your brother at Khaybar.’
Ibn Ishaq, p. 516

Al Tabari[edit]

When the Messenger of God rested from his labor, Zaynab bt. al-Harith, the wife of Sallam b. Mishkam, served him a roast sheep. She had asked what part of the sheep the Messenger of God liked best and was told that it was the foreleg. So she loaded that part with poison, and she poisoned the rest of the sheep, too. Then she brought it. When she set it before the Messenger of God, he took the foreleg and chewed a bit of it, but he did not swallow it. With him was Bishr b. al-Bars' b. Ma'rur, who, like the Messenger of God, took some of it, Bishr, however, swallowed it, while the Messenger of God spat it out, saying, "This bone informs me that it has been poisoned ." Then he summoned the woman, and she confessed. He asked, "What led you to do this?" She said: "How you have afflicted my people is not hidden from you. So I said, `If he is a prophet, he will be informed; but if he is a king, I shall be rid of him." The Prophet forgave her. Bishr b. al-Bars' died of the food he had eaten. According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq- Marwan b. 'Uthman b. Abi Said b. al-Mu'alla,513 who said: The Messenger of God said during the illness from which he died-the mother of Bishr b. al-Bara' had come in to visit him-"Umm Bishr, at this very moment I feel my aorta being severed because of the food I ate with your son at Khaybar." The Muslims believed that in addition to the honor of prophethood that God had granted him the Messenger of God died a martyr.
Ibn I iumayd-Salamah-Ibn Ishaq (in an account we have quoted from him [see Tabari, above, I, 11800]) on the authority of al-Zuhri-`Ubaydallah b. 'Abdallah-'A'ishah: Then the Messenger of God came down [from the pulpit], entered his house and the pain came, all of it, until he was exhausted. Some of his wives, Umm Salamah, Maymunah, and some of the wives of the Muslims, among whom was Asma' b. 'Umays, gathered round him, while his uncle al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Mullalib was with him. They agreed to force him to take medicine. Al-'Abbas said, "Let me force him," and [the Messenger of God] was forced. After the Messenger of God recovered he asked who had done that with him. They said that it was his uncle al-'Abbas. Pointing in the direction of Abyssinia, the Prophet said, "This is a medicine brought by women from that country." When he asked why they had done it, al-'Abbas replied, "O Messenger of God, we were afraid that you might have pleurisy (dhat al-janb)." He replied, "That is a disease with which God would not afflict me. Let no one remain in the house until he is forced to take this medicine except my uncle." Although Maymunah had fasted, she was forced to take it because of the Messenger of God's oath as a retribution for what they had done [to him].
Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. 'Abd al-Hakam-Shu'ayb b. al-Layth-al-Layth-Yazid b. al-Had- Musa b. Sar-jis -al-Qasim-'A'ishah : Before the Messenger of God died, I saw a bowl of water near him. He used to put his hand in the bowl and then wipe his face with it, saying, "O my Lord, help me [to overcome] the severity of the agony of death (sakrat almawt)."
Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Ibn Ishaq-Ya'qub b. `Utbah-al- Zuhri-'Urwah-'A'ishah: That day, after the Messenger of God had gone to the mosque, he returned and lay down in my lap. A man from the family of Abu Bakr came to me, and he had a fresh siwak in his hand. The Messenger of God looked at it in such a way that I knew [that] he wanted it. I took it, chewed it until I had softened it and gave it to him. He rubbed his teeth with it more energetically than I had [ever] seen him doing it before. Then he put it down, and I found him getting heavy in my lap. When I looked into his face his eyes were fixed while he was saying, "Nay, the most Exalted Companion is that of paradise." I said, "By Him who sent you with the truth, you were given the choice, and you have chosen," and he died.

Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq-Yahya b. 'Abbad b. al-Zubayr-his father 'Abbad: I heard 'A'ishah saying, "The Messenger of God died on my bosom during my turn, and I did not wrong anyone in regard to him. It was because of my ignorance and youthfulness that the Messenger of God died while he was in my lap. Then I laid his head on a pillow and got up beating my chest and slapping my face along with the women.
Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Ibn Ishaq-al-Zuhri-Sa'id b. al-Musayyib-Abu Hurayrah: When the Messenger of God died, 'Umar b. al-Khattab stood up saying, "Some of the hypocrites allege that the Messenger of God is dead. By God, he is not dead, but has gone to his Lord as Moses b. 'Imran went and remained hidden from his people for forty days. Moses returned after it was said that he had died. By God, the Messenger of God will [also] return and will cut off the hands and feet of those who allege that he is dead."

When the news [of the Prophet's death] reached Abu Bakr, he came and dismounted near the door of the mosque [where] 'Umar was speaking to the people. He paid no attention to anything and went [straight] to the Messenger of God in 'A'ishah 's house where he was lying in a comer covered by a striped garment of the Yemeni fabric. Abu Bakr went close [to the Prophet], uncovered his face, kissed him, then said, "With my father may you be ransomed, and with my mother! Indeed, you have tasted the death which God had decreed for you. No [other] death will ever overtake you." Then he replaced the cloth on [the Prophet's] face and went out as 'Umar was speaking to the people. He said, "Gently, O'Umar, [and] be silent!"'Umar refused [to be silent] and kept on speaking. When Abu Bakr saw that he would not listen, he went forward to the people [speaking]. When they heard his words, they came to him and left `Umar. After praising God and extolling Him, he said, "O people, those who worshipped Muhammad, [must know that] Muhammad is dead; those who worshipped God, [must know that ] God is alive [and] immortal." He then recited the verse: "Muhammad is only a messenger; and many a messenger has gone before him. So if he dies or is killed, will you turn back on your heels ? He who turns back on his heels will do no harm to God; and God will reward the grateful." By God, it was as if the people did not know that this verse was revealed to the Messenger of God until Abu Bakr recited it that day. The people took it from him, and it was [constantly) in their mouths. 'Umar said, "By God, as soon as I heard Abu Bakr recite it, my legs betrayed me so that I fell to the ground , and my legs would not bear me. I knew that the Messenger of God had indeed died."
Abu Ja'far [al-Tabari]: After the oath of allegiance was rendered to Abu Bakr, people came to prepare the Messenger of God's burial. Some [of the authorities] state that the burial took place on Tuesday, that is, the following day of the Messenger of God's death, while the others state that' he was buried three days after his death. The report of some of those authorities has already preceded.

Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq-'Abdallah b. Abi Bakr, Kathir b. 'Abdallah, and others who relate from `Abdallah b. 'Abbas: 'All b. Abi Talib, al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al- Muttalib, al-Facll b. al-'Abbas, Qutham b. al-'Abbas, Usamah b. Zayd, and Shugran, freedman of the Messenger of God, were the ones who took charge of the washing of the Prophet. Aws b. Khawli, one of the Banu 'Awf b. al-Khazraj, said to 'Ali, "I adjure you by God, 0 'Ali, [where is] our share in regard to the Messenger of God?" Aws was one [of the companions of the Messenger of God] who had participated in Badr. 'Ali allowed him to enter, so he came in'- and was present at the Messenger of God's washing. `Ali made the Prophet's body to rest upon his breast and 'Abbas, al-Fads, and Qutham turned him over along with 'Ali. Usamah and Shugran were the ones who poured water [over him], while 'Ali washed him, having rested him against his breast. The shirt was still on the Prophet's body; 'Ali rubbed him from the outside without touching the Messenger of God's [body directly] with his hands while he was saying, "With my father may you be ransomed, and with my mother! How excellent you are in life and in death! The Messenger of God's body did not look like what an ordinary corpse would look like.

Ibn Sa’d[edit]

The apostle of Allah and his companions ate from it. It (goat) said: "I am poisoned." He [Muhammad] said to his Companions, "Hold you hands! because it has informed me that it is poisoned!" They withdrew their hands, but Bishr Ibn al-Bara expired. The apostle of Allah sent for her (Jewess) and asked her, "What induced you to do what you have done?" She replied, "I wanted to know if you are a prophet, in that case it will not harm you and if you are a king, I shall relieve the people of you. He gave orders and she was put to death.
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 2, p. 249
Verily a woman of the Jews of Khaibar presented poisoned (meat of) goat to the apostle of Allah. The he recognized that it was poisoned, so he sent for her and asked her, "What induced you to do what you have done?" She replied, "I thought if you are a prophet, Allah will inform you, and if you are a pretender, I shall relieve people of you. When the apostle of Allah felt sick, he got himself "cupped".
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 2, p. 250
When the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, conquered Khaybar and he had peace of mind, Zaynab Bint al-Harith, the brother of Marhab, who was the spouse of Sallam Ibn Mishkam, inquired: Which part of the goat is liked by Muhammad? They said: The foreleg. Then she slaughtered one from her goats and roasted it (the meat). Then she wanted a poison which could not fail. The Jews discussed about poisons and became united on one poison. She poisoned the she-goat putting more poison on the forelegs, and shoulder. When the sun had set and the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, returned after leading the people in Maghrib (sun-set) prayers, she sat by his feet. He asked her about her. She said: O Abu al-Qasim! Here is a present which I wish to offer to you. The Prophet, may Allah bless him, ordered it to be taken. It was served to him and to his Companions who were present and among those who were present was Bishr Ibn al-Bara Ibn Ma’rur. Then the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, said: Come closer and have night meal. The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, took the foreleg, a piece of which he put into his mouth. Bishr Ibn al-Bara took another bone and put it into his mouth. When the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, ate one morsel of it Bishr ate his and other people also ate from it. Then the Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, said: Hold back your hands! Because this foreleg; and according to another version, the shoulder of the goat, has informed me that it is poisoned. Thereupon Bishr said: By Him Who hath made you great! I discovered it from the morsel I took. Nothing prevented me from emitting it out, but the idea that I did not like to make your food unrelishing. When you had eaten what was in your mouth, I did not like to save my life after yours, and I also thought you would not have eaten it if there was something wrong. Bishr did not rise from his seat but his color changed to that of taylsan (a green cloth). For a year the pain did not permit him to change his sides but with the help of others and then he expired. According to another version, he died before leaving his seat. He (Ibn Sa’d) said: A peace of it was dropped before a dog who ate it and died (instantaneously) without being able to move its foreleg. The Apostle of Allah sent for Zaynab Bint al-Harith and said to her: What induced you to do what you have done? She replied: You have done to my people what you have done. You have killed my father, my uncle, and my husband, so I said to myself. If you are a prophet, the foreleg will inform you; and others have said: If you are a king we will get rid of you. The Jewess returned as she had come. He (Ibn Sa’d) said: The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, handed her over to the heirs of Bishr Ibn al-Bara who put her to death.
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 2, pp. 251-252
The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, lived after this three years till in consequence of his pain he passed away. During his illness he used to say: I did not cease to find the effect of the (poisoned) morsel, I took at Khaybar and I suffered several times (from its effect) but now I feel the hour has come of the cutting of my jugular vein, which is a vein in the back
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 2, p. 252
Umm Bishr [the mother of the Muslim man who also died eating poison], came to the prophet during his illness and said, "O apostle of Allah! I never saw fever like it in any one." The prophet said to her, "Our trial is double and so our reward [in heaven], is double. What do the people say about it [his illness]?" She said, "They say it is pleurisy." Thereupon the apostle said, "Allah will not like to make His apostle suffer from it (pleurisy) because it indicates the possession of Satan, but (my disease is the result of) the morsel that I had taken along your son. It has cut my jugular vein."
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 2, p. 294
When the last moment of the prophet was near, he used to draw a sheet over his face; but when he felt uneasy, he removed it from his face and said: "Allah's damnation be on the Jews and the Christians who made the graves of their prophets objects of worship."
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 2, p. 322

Scholars[edit]

Abu al-Fida[edit]

Sibi robur ad generationem, quantum triginta viri habent, inesse jactaret; ita ut unicâ horâ posset undecim feminis satisfacere, ut ex Arabum libris refert Stus Petrus Paschasius, c. 2 (Maracci, Prodromus Alcoran, p. iv. p. 55. See likewise Observations de Belon, l. iii. c. 10, fol. 179, recto). Al Jannabi (Gagmer, tom. iii. p. 487) records his own testimony that he surpassed all men in conjugal vigour; and Abulfeda mentions the exclamation of Ali, who washed his body after his death, “O propheta, certe penis tuus cælum versus erectus est” ["O prophet, thy penis is erect unto the sky!"] (in Vit. Mohammed. p. 140).

Al Munajjid[edit]

Then came the poisoning incident, after the conquest of Khaybar. Al-Bukhaari (2617) and Muslim (2190) narrated from Anas that a Jewish woman came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) with some poisoned mutton. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ate from it, then he asked her about that. She said, “I wanted to kill you.” He said, “Allaah would not let you do that.” They said, “Shall we kill her?” He said, “No.” He said, I can still see the effect of that on the palate of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).

Al-Nawawi said: It is as if the poison still left some trace of blackness etc.

The name of this woman was Zaynab bint al-Haarith, the wife of Salaam ibn Mashkam, one of the leaders of the Jews.

The reports differ as to whether or not she was killed. It seems that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not kill her at first, but when Bishr ibn al-Bara’ ibn Ma’roor died as a result of the effects of this food, then he executed her as a qisaas punishment.

Al-Bukhaari (5777) narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: When Khaybar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophet as a gift (by the Jews). The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me.” The Jews were gathered and the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?” They replied, “Yes.” He asked, “Have you poisoned this sheep?” They said, “Yes.” He asked, “What made you do that?” They said, “We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would have got rid of you, and if you are a Prophet then the poison would not harm you.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to feel ill because of this food, and he would be treated with cupping for that.

Ahmad (2784) narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that a Jewish woman sent a gift to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) of a poisoned roasted sheep. He sent for her and asked her, “What made you do what you did?” She said, “I wanted to see if you were a Prophet, then Allaah would tell you about it, and if you were not a Prophet the people would be rid of you.” Whenever the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) felt ill as a result of that he would have himself treated by cupping. On one occasion he traveled and when he entered ihraam he felt ill as a result of that and he had himself treated by cupping. The editor of al-Musnad classed it as saheeh.

That had an impact in causing his death, so he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) died as a martyr (shaheed), as Ibn Mas’ood (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

“If I were to swear by Allaah nine times that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was killed, that is more beloved to me than swearing once, because Allaah made him a Prophet and made him a martyr.” Narrated by Ahmad, 3617. The editors said, its isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of Muslim.

Al-Sindi said: The words “he was killed” mean by the poison in the meat of the sheep’s foreleg that he ate, when the effects of that appeared when he was dying.

Quoted from Haashiyat al-Musnad, 6/116.

Al-Bukhaari narrated in his Saheeh, in a mu’allaq report, and al-Haakim narrated in his Mustadrak in a mawsool report, that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: “The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to say, in the illness which would be his last, ‘O ‘Aa’ishah, I still feel the pain of the food that I ate in Khaybar, and this time I feel that my aorta is being cut from that poison.”

The aorta is the vein that is towards the back and is connected to the heart; if it is cut then the person will die.

Standing Committee[edit]

The Standing Committee for Scholarly Research and Issuing Fatwas in Saudi Arabia is one of the respected scholarly committees of current times. It includes a number of senior scholars and it has a high level of credibility in scholarly and Islamic circles.[1]

Question:

Some people doubt that the prophet may have died from poisoning. As a result of eating from the poisoned sheep that was offered to him by the Jewish woman, is this true?.

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

It is proven by the scholars who studied the Prophet’s biography in detail that he ate mutton that had been poisoned by a Jewish woman in Khaybar, then the leg of mutton spoke and informed the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) that it was poisoned, so he stopped eating it. When his final illness came, he (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “O ‘Aa’ishah, I still feel the pain of the food that I ate in Khaybar, and this time I feel that my aorta is being cut from that poison.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari in his Saheeh. So there is no room for doubt that this poison affected his body, since it is proven in al-Saheeh and elsewhere.

And Allaah is the Source of strength. May Allaah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and his family and companions. End quote.

Standing Committee for Academic Research and Issuing Fatwas

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez Aal al-Shaykh, Shaykh ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Ghadyaan, Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, Shaykh Bakr Abu Zayd

Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah li’l-Buhooth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa’l-Ifta (26/36).

IslamWeb[edit]

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds; and may His blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions. Allah Said in His perfect Book: {Say: None in the heavens or on earth, except Allah, knows what is hidden: nor can they perceive when they shall be raised up (for Judgment).}[27:65]. He the Almighty clearly Ordered His Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) to inform the people: {Say (O Muhammad (SAW) "I don't tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor (that) I know the Unseen; …}[6:50]. How can a common person, let alone a Muslim, believe that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) has the knowledge of the unseen while Allah and His Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) deny with that. In addition, having the knowledge of the unseen is among the special Attributes of Allah and He is deemed far above from sharing His Attributes with anyone else. In fact, during the time of the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam), He often used to informed some matters of the unseen such as the signs of the Last Hour, the wars that will happen, and he even informed about Paradise and Hell-fire, etc. But this was not based on his own knowledge rather Allah The Almighty informed him and ordered him to inform others. Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {"(He Alone is) the All-Knower of the Ghaib (Unseen), and He reveals to none His Ghaib (Unseen)." Except to a Messenger (from mankind) whom He has chosen (He informs him of unseen as much as He likes),… }[72:26].

Claiming that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is alive like us is a totally false claim. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) died as other Prophets (Alaihim al-Salaam) died and he was buried in al-Madinah. Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {Muhammad is no more than a Messenger: many were the Messengers that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah; but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve him) with gratitude.}[3:144]. In another verse He Declares: {Verily you (O Muhammad (SAW) will die, and verily they (too) will die.}[39:30].

Now the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is in Barzakh, which is totally different from this world. The life in Barzakh is different from the life in this world. The details about the life of Barzakh could be known only by Qur'an and Sunnah since they are among the unseen matters. Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {…Nay, they are alive, with their Lord, and they have provision.}[3:169].

In fact, the grade of Prophets (Alaihim Salaam) is far above the grade of martyrs, thus they are more entitled to be alive in the Barzakh. But the life and the matters of the Barzakh are not similar to the life and matters of this life. Allah Alone knows the details of that life. So comparing these two worlds is not possible. If the life of the Barzakh were similar to the life of this world, it would not be correct to ascribe death to the Prophet Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam, as mentioned in the above verse.

Due to the differences of both lives the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is not aware of what is going on in this world. He does not know who is asking help from him, and who is seeking child, wealth, wife, etc. from him as practiced by the grave worshippers. The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) said: "Lo! Some men from my followers will be brought and then (the angels) will drive them to the left side (Hell-Fire). I will say. 'O my Lord! (They are) my companions!' Then a reply will come (from Almighty), 'You do not know what they did after you.'"[al-Bukhari]. This Hadith proves that he does not know the matters of this world after his death otherwise he will be aware of the situations of his people.

On the other hand, if it is said that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) is alive in his grave, it does not mean that his life is similar to the life of those who are living in this world. So, if one seeks his help asks something from him he commits Shirk (polytheism).

Finally, what we mentioned above is the sole truth that is approved in Qur'an and Sunnah, whoever believes so is a true Muslim and whoever opposes such a person, insults him and accuses him of Kufr (disbelief) is committing a great sin, since he is considering a Muslim person Kafir without any reason.

See Also[edit]

  • Muhammad's Death - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Muhammad's Death

External Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid - A brief introduction to the fatwas of the Standing Committee for Scholarly Research and Issuing Fatwas - Islamic Propagation Office in Rabwah, Riyadh, 2009