Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:People of the Book

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Qur'an[edit]

And when ye said: O Moses! We are weary of one kind of food; so call upon thy Lord for us that He bring forth for us of that which the earth groweth - of its herbs and its cucumbers and its corn and its lentils and its onions. He said: Would ye exchange that which is higher for that which is lower? Go down to settled country, thus ye shall get that which ye demand. And humiliation and wretchedness were stamped upon them and they were visited with wrath from Allah. That was because they disbelieved in Allah's revelations and slew the prophets wrongfully. That was for their disobedience and transgression.
And ye know of those of you who broke the Sabbath, how We said unto them: Be ye apes, despised and hated!
"And they say: Our hearts are hardened. Nay, but Allah hath cursed them for their unbelief. Little is that which they believe. And when there cometh unto them a scripture from Allah, confirming that in their possession - though before that they were asking for a signal triumph over those who disbelieved - and when there cometh unto them that which they know (to be the truth) they disbelieve therein. The curse of Allah is on disbelievers. Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should disbelieve in that which Allah hath revealed, grudging that Allah should reveal of His bounty unto whom He will of His slaves. They have incurred anger upon anger. For disbelievers is a shameful doom."
Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form of religion. Say: "The Guidance of Allah,-that is the (only) Guidance." Wert thou to follow their desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee, then wouldst thou find neither Protector nor helper against Allah.
"Or say ye that Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know best, or doth Allah? And who is more unjust than he who hideth a testimony which he hath received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of what ye do."
Ye are the best of peoples, evolved for mankind, enjoining what is right, forbidding what is wrong, and believing in Allah. If only the People of the Book had faith, it were best for them: among them are some who have faith, but most of them are perverted transgressors.
O ye People of the Book! believe in what We have (now) revealed, confirming what was (already) with you, before We change the face and fame of some (of you) beyond all recognition, and turn them hindwards, or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath-breakers, for the decision of Allah Must be carried out.
"Because of the wrongdoing of the Jews We forbade them good things which were (before) made lawful unto them, and because of their much hindering from Allah's way,"
"But on account of their breaking their covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard; they altered the words from their places and they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of; and you shall always discover treachery in them excepting a few of them; so pardon them and turn away; surely Allah loves those who do good (to others)."
"O Messenger! let not those grieve thee, who race each other into unbelief: (whether it be) among those who say "We believe" with their lips but whose hearts have no faith; or it be among the Jews,- men who will listen to any lie,- will listen even to others who have never so much as come to thee. They change the words from their (right) times and places: they say, "If ye are given this, take it, but if not, beware!" If any one's trial is intended by Allah, thou hast no authority in the least for him against Allah. For such - it is not Allah's will to purify their hearts. For them there is disgrace in this world, and in the Hereafter a heavy punishment."
"O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guideth not a people unjust."
"Say: O People of the Scripture! Do ye blame us for aught else than that we believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed aforetime, and because most of you are evil-livers?"
"Say: Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from Allah? those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil;- these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!"
"The Jews say: Allah's hand is fettered. Their hands are fettered and they are accursed for saying so. Nay, but both His hands are spread out wide in bounty. He bestoweth as He will. That which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord is certain to increase the contumacy and disbelief of many of them, and We have cast among them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection. As often as they light a fire for war, Allah extinguisheth it. Their effort is for corruption in the land, and Allah loveth not corrupters."
"They do blaspheme who say: "Allah is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O Children of Israel! worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with Allah,- Allah will forbid him the garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help."
"They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them."
"And when Allah saith: O Jesus, son of Mary! Didst thou say unto mankind: Take me and my mother for two gods beside Allah? he saith: Be glorified! It was not mine to utter that to which I had no right. If I used to say it, then Thou knewest it. Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I know not what is in Thy Mind. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower of Things Hidden?"
"Fight against such of those who have been given the Scripture as believe not in Allah nor the Last Day, and forbid not that which Allah hath forbidden by His messenger, and follow not the Religion of Truth, until they pay the tribute readily, being brought low."
"And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old. Allah (Himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they! They have taken as lords beside Allah their rabbis and their monks and the Messiah son of Mary, when they were bidden to worship only One Allah. There is no Allah save Him. Be He Glorified from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him)!"
"He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the Religion of Truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion, however much the idolaters may be averse. O ye who believe! Lo! many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar (men) from the way of Allah. They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom, On the day when it will (all) be heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be branded therewith (and it will be said unto them): Here is that which ye hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what ye used to hoard."
"They say: Allah hath taken (unto Him) a son - Glorified be He! He hath no needs! His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Ye have no warrant for this. Tell ye concerning Allah that which ye know not?"
"To the Jews We prohibited such things as We have mentioned to thee before: We did them no wrong, but they were used to doing wrong to themselves."
"And We gave (Clear) Warning to the Children of Israel in the Book, that twice would they do mischief on the earth and be elated with mighty arrogance (and twice would they be punished)!"
And they say: The Beneficent hath taken unto Himself a son. Assuredly ye utter a disastrous thing Whereby almost the heavens are torn, and the earth is split asunder and the mountains fall in ruins, That ye ascribe unto the Beneficent a son, When it is not meet for (the Majesty of) the Beneficent that He should choose a son."
"Lo! it hath been revealed unto us that the doom will be for him who denieth and turneth away."
Lo! it is of their falsehood that they say: Allah hath begotten. Allah! verily they tell a lie."
Those who reject (Truth), among the People of the Book and among the Polytheists, will be in Hell-Fire, to dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst of creatures.

Hadith[edit]

Sahih Bukhari[edit]

Narrated 'Aisha and 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas: When the last moment of the life of Allah's Apostle came he started putting his 'Khamisa' on his face and when he felt hot and short of breath he took it off his face and said, "May Allah curse the Jews and Christians for they built the places of worship at the graves of their Prophets." The Prophet was warning (Muslims) of what those had done.
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Say Amen' when the Imam says "Ghair-il-maghdubi 'alaihim wala-ddal-lin; not the path of those who earn Your Anger (such as Jews) nor of those who go astray (such as Christians); all the past sins of the person whose saying (of Amin) coincides with that of the angels, will be forgiven.
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, surely (Jesus,) the son of Mary will soon descend amongst you and will judge mankind justly (as a Just Ruler); he will break the Cross and kill the pigs and there will be no Jizya (i.e. taxation taken from non Muslims). Money will be in abundance so that nobody will accept it, and a single prostration to Allah (in prayer) will be better than the whole world and whatever is in it.” Abu Huraira added “If you wish, you can recite (this verse of the Holy Book): — ‘And there is none Of the people of the Scriptures (Jews and Christians) But must believe in him (i.e Jesus as an Apostle of Allah and a human being) Before his death. And on the Day of Judgment He will be a witness Against them.” (4.159) (See Fateh Al Bari, Page 302 Vol 7)
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said “How will you be when the son of Mary (i.e. Jesus) descends amongst you and he will judge people by the Law of the Quran and not by the law of Gospel (Fateh-ul Bari page 304 and 305 Vol 7)
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar: I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "The Jews will fight with you, and you will be given victory over them so that a stone will say, 'O Muslim! There is a Jew behind me; kill him!' "
Narrated Abbas bin Malik: ...When I went (over the sixth heaven), there I saw Moses. Gabriel said (to me),' This is Moses; pay him your greeting. So I greeted him and he returned the greetings to me and said, 'You are welcomed, O pious brother and pious Prophet.' When I left him (i.e. Moses) he wept. Someone asked him, 'What makes you weep?' Moses said, 'I weep because after me there has been sent (as Prophet) a young man whose followers will enter Paradise in greater numbers than my followers.'
Narrated Nafi': Whenever Ibn 'Umar was asked about marrying a Christian lady or a Jewess, he would say: "Allah has made it unlawful for the believers to marry ladies who ascribe partners in worship to Allah, and I do not know of a greater thing, as regards to ascribing partners in worship, etc. to Allah, than that a lady should say that Jesus is her Lord although he is just one of Allah's slaves."
Narrated 'Aisha: I never used to leave in the Prophet house anything carrying images or crosses but he obliterated it.

Sahih Muslim[edit]

It has been narrated by 'Umar b. al-Khattib that he heard the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) say: I will expel the Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula and will not leave any but Muslim.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Do not greet the Jews and the Christians before they greet you and when you meet any one of them on the roads force him to go to the narrowest part of it.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.

In the following hadiths taken from Sahih Muslim (Chapter 8: THROWING OF NON-BELIEVERS IN HELL-FIRE FOR BELIEVERS AS DIVINE GRACE AND MERCY), we are told that Muslims will be spared hell-fire by throwing Jews and Christians into hell.

Abu Musa' reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: When it will be the Day of Resurrection Allah would deliver to every Muslim a Jew or a Christian and say: That is your rescue from Hell-Fire.
Abu Burda reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: No Muslim would die but Allah would admit in his stead a Jew or a Christian in Hell-Fire. 'Umar b. Abd al-'Aziz took an oath: By One besides Whom there is no god but He, thrice that his father had narrated that to him from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him).
Abu Burda reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: There would come people amongst the Muslims on the Day of Resurrection with as heavy sins as a mountain, and Allah would forgive them and He would place in their stead the Jews and the Christians. (As far as I think), Abu Raub said: I do not know as to who is in doubt. Abu Burda said: I narrated it to 'Umar b. 'Abd al-'Aziz, whereupon he said: Was it your father who narrated it to you from Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him)? I said: Yes.

Abu Dawud[edit]

Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: There is no prophet between me and him, that is, Jesus (peace be upon him). He will descent (to the earth). When you see him, recognise him: a man of medium height, reddish fair, wearing two light yellow garments, looking as if drops were falling down from his head though it will not be wet. He will fight the people for the cause of Islam. He will break the cross, kill swine, and abolish jizyah. Allah will perish all religions except Islam. He will destroy the Antichrist and will live on the earth for forty years and then he will die. The Muslims will pray over him.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As:

The value of the blood-money at the time of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) was eight hundred dinars or eight thousand dirhams, and the blood-money for the people of the Book was half of that for Muslims.

He said: This applied till Umar (Allah be pleased with him) became caliph and he made a speech in which he said: Take note! Camels have become dear. So Umar fixed the value for those who possessed gold at one thousand dinars, for those who possessed silver at twelve thousand (dirhams), for those who possessed cattle at two hundred cows, for those who possessed sheep at two thousand sheep, and for those who possessed suits of clothing at two hundred suits. He left the blood-money for dhimmis (protected people) as it was, not raising it in proportion to the increase he made in the blood-wit.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas: Ikrimah reported on the authority of Ibn Abbas, saying: I think the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: When one of you prays without a sutrah, a dog, an ass, a pig, a Jew, a Magian, and a woman cut off his prayer, but it will suffice if they pass in front of him at a distance of over a stone's throw.

Malik's Muwatta[edit]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar that Abdullah ibn Umar said that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "When a jew greets you, and says 'Death to you' (as-samu alaykum) say, 'And to you.' "
Yahya said, "Malik was asked whether a person who greeted a jew or christian, should apologise for it. He said, 'No'."

Sira[edit]

Ibn Ishaq[edit]

Some Muslims remained friends with the Jews, so Allah sent down a Qur'an forbidding them to take Jews as friends. From their mouths hatred has already shown itself and what they conceal is worse
Ibn Ishaq p.262

Scholars[edit]

Al Uthaymeen[edit]

Question: One of the preachers in one of the mosques in Europe claimed that it is not allowed to consider Jews and Christians disbelievers. You know - may Allah preserve you - that most of the people who attend the mosques in Europe have very little knowledge. We fear that statements like this one will become widespread. Therefore, we request from you a complete and clear answer to this question.

Answer:I say: The statement that came from that man is misguidance. In fact, it can be blasphemy. This is because Allah has declared that Jews and Christians are disbelievers (kuffaar) in His Book. Allah has said, "And the Jews say, ‘Ezra is the son of Allah,’ and the Christians say, ‘The Messiah is the son of Allah.’ This is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allah’s curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth. They took their rabbis and their monks as lords besides Allah and [they also took as Lord] the Messiah, son of Mary. But they were commanded only to worship none but One God. Praise and Glory be to Him, [far above is He] from having the partners they associate with Him." [at-Taubah 9:30-31] That shows that they are polytheists who associate partners with Allah. In other verses, Allah has made it clear that they are disbelievers:

"Surely in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary." [al-Maidah 5:17 and 72]

"Surely, disbelievers are those who said, ‘Allah is the third of the three [in a Trinity]." [al-Maidah 5:73]

"Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary." [al-Maidah 5:87]

"Those who disbelieve among the People of the Book and the idolaters will abide in the Fire of Hell." [al-Bayyinah 98:6]

Many verses and hadith express the same meaning. The one who rejects the idea that the Jews and the Christians who do not believe in Muhammad [peace be upon him] and deny him are disbelievers is, in fact, denying what Allah has said. Denying what Allah has said is blasphemy. If anyone has any doubt concerning them being disbelievers, then he himself is also a disbeliever.

Glory be to Allah!

How could that man be pleased to say that it is not allowed to say that they are disbelievers when they themselves say that Allah is one of a Trinity? Their Creator Himself has declared that they are disbelievers.

How could this man not be pleased to call them disbelievers when they actually say, "Jesus is the son of God" or "the hand of Allah is tied," and "Allah is poor and we are rich"?

How could this man not be pleased to call them disbelievers and apply the word of disbelief (kufr) to them in general when they describe their Lord in such ways that are nothing but cursing and abusing Allah?

I call upon that man to repent to Allah and to read Allah’s words, "They wish that you should compromise (in religion out of courtesy) with them, so that they (too) would compromise with you." [al-Qalam (68):9] He should make it clear to everyone that they are disbelievers and that they are the inhabitants of the Hell-fire. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "By the One in whose hand my soul is, no Jew or Christian of this community hears about me - that is from the community of people from the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) until the Day of Judgment - and then does not follow me - or he said does not believe in what I brought - except that he is from the inhabitants of the Hell-fire." [Saheeh Muslim]

The one who made such a statement must repent to his Lord because of this great falsehood he has stated. He must make a clear announcement that they are disbelievers and that they are inhabitants of the Hell-fire. He must also announce that it is obligatory upon them to follow the unlettered Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). he is the one that the Jews and the Christians know and they know him like they know their own sons. Allah has stated, "Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet whom they find written about with them in the Torah and the Gospel, he commands what is right and forbids what is evil. He allows them the good things and forbids for them disdainful things. He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful." [al-Araf 7:157]

He is the one of whom Jesus, son of Mary (peace be upon him) gave glad tidings. Jesus said, as His Lord states in the Quran, "O Israel, I am the Messenger of Allah for you confirming the Torah (which came) before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad [one of the names of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him]. But when he came to them with clear proofs, they said, ‘This is clear magic.’" [as-Saff 61:6]

When the one, Ahmad, who was promised came to them with clear signs, they said that it was nothing but magic. By this, we can refute those Christians who say that the one Jesus promised was named Ahmad and not Muhammad. We say to that that Allah said, "When he came with clear proofs," and none has come to you after Jesus except Muhammad (peace be upon him). Muhammad is Ahmad and Allah inspired Jesus to call Muhammad Ahmad. This is because Ahmad is a name from the root meaning, "to praise," and the name itself means, "One who praises Allah more than others." Therefore, [Muhammad (peace be upon him)] is the most praiseworthy of Allah among all peoples...

I further say: If anyone claims that there is a religion on earth other than Islam that is acceptable to Allah, then the person who made that claim is a disbeliever and there is no doubt about his disbelief. This is because Allah has said in His Book, "Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted from him and in the Hereafter he will be one of the losers. [ali-Imran 3:85]. Allah has also said, "Truly, the religion in the sight of Allah is Islam" [ali-Imran 3:19]. Another verse states, "This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion" [al-Maida 5:3]

Based on that - and I repeat it for a third time - the person who made that statement [mentioned in the question] must repent to Allah, Most High. And he must also make it clear to all the people that those Jews and Christians are disbelievers. This is so because the proof has been established against them, they have received the message but they have refused to believe.

The Jews have been described as those who have earned Allah’s wrath. That is because they knew the truth and chose to go against it. The Christians have been described as those who have gone astray. This is because they sought the truth but were misled from it. Now, all of them have knowledge of the truth and recognize it. However, they go against it. Therefore, they all deserve to have the wrath of Allah upon them. I call all those Jews and Christians to believe in Allah and all of His Messengers. I call upon them to follow the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). This is what they have been ordered to do in their own books. Allah states in the Quran, "My Mercy embraces all things. That (Mercy) I shall ordain for those who are God-fearing and give zakat, and those who believe in Our revelations. Those who follow the Messenger, the illiterate Prophet whom they find written about with them in the Torah and the Gospel, he commands what is right and forbids what is evil. He allows them the good things and forbids for them disdainful things. He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the fetters that were upon them. So those who believe in him, honor him, help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful. Say (O Muhammad): O Mankind! Verily, I am sent to all of you as the Messenger of Allah, to whom belongs the heavens and the earth. There is no true God but He. It is He who gives life and causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the unlettered, who believes in Allah and His Words. And follow him so that you may be guided." [al-Araf 7:156-158].

[By having such faith, those converts from Judaism and Christianity] shall receive their reward twice. The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said, "There are three people who will receive their rewards twice: A person from the People of the Book [Jews and Christians] who believed in his prophet and believed in Muhammad..." [al-Bukhari and Muslim].

I have also found in the law book al-Iqna`, in the section on apostasy, where the author has stated, "One who does not consider as a disbeliever one who follows a religion other than Islam, such as the Christians, or who has doubt about their disbelief or who approves of their way himself is a disbeliever." And he quotes Ibn Taimiya as saying, "[The following is] a disbeliever: Whoever believes that churches are the houses of Allah in which he He is worshipped or who thinks that what the Jews and Christians do are valid acts of worship of Allah and obedience to Him and His Messenger, or loves or approves of what they do, or aids them in having such places and establishing their religion, and he does so thinking that is a way of getting closer to Allah or worshipping Allah." He also stated, "If someone believes that visiting the Jews and the Christians in their places of worship is an act that brings him closer to Allah, then he is an apostate."

These statements support what was stated in the text of the answer. This is a matter concerning which there is no room for doubt. And help is sought only with Allah.
Confirmation That Judaism And Christianity Are Forms Of Disbelief
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salih al-`Uthaymeen, Fatawa Islamiya, vol. 1, p. 87

Al-Jahiz[edit]

Our people [the Muslims] observing thus the occupations of the Jews and the Christians concluded that the religion of the Jews must compare unfavorably as do their professions, and that their unbelief must be the foulest of all, since they are the filthiest of all nations. Why the Christians, ugly as they are, are physically less repulsive than the Jews may be explained by the fact that the Jews, by not intermarrying, have intensified the offensiveness of their features. Exotic elements have not mingled with them; neither have males of alien races had intercourse with their women, nor have their men cohabited with females of a foreign stock. The Jewish race therefore has been denied high mental qualities, sound physique, and superior lactation. The same results obtain when horses, camels, donkeys, and pigeons are inbred.
al-Jahiz (781 - 869 AD)

Al-Tabari[edit]

In my opinion, [the Christians] are not like the Jews who always scheme in order to murder the emissaries and the prophets, and who oppose God in his positive and negative commandments, and who corrupt His scripture which He revealed in His books.
al-Tabari (838 - 923 AD), Tafsīr on 5:82

Ibn Taymiyyah[edit]

Whosoever does not forbid people from the deen of the Jews and Christians after the prophethood of the messenger Muhammad (saw) nor declares them kafir nor hates them, he is not a Muslim by the consensus of all Muslims, their scholars and the general public.
Shaykh Al-Islam ibn Taymiyyah (Rahimullah) v27 p264

Ibn Kathir[edit]

Allah forbids His believing servants from having Jews and Christians as friends, because they are the enemies of Islam and its people, may Allah curse them. Allah then states that they are friends of each other and He gives a warning threat to those who do this,

(And if any among you befriends them, then surely he is one of them.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Umar ordered Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari to send him on one sheet of balance the count of what he took in and what he spent. Abu Musa then had a Christian scribe, and he was able to comply with `Umar's demand. `Umar liked what he saw and exclaimed, "This scribe is proficient. Would you read in the Masjid a letter that came to us from Ash-Sham" Abu Musa said, `He cannot."

`Umar said, "Is he not pure" Abu Musa said, "No, but he is Christian." Abu Musa said, "So `Umar admonished me and poked my thigh (with his finger), saying, `Drive him out (from Al-Madinah).' He then recited,"

(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as friends...) Then he reported that `Abdullah bin `Utbah said, "Let one of you beware that he might be a Jew or a Christian, while unaware." The narrator of this statement said, "We thought that he was referring to the Ayah,

Al-Majlisi[edit]

“And, that they should not enter the pool while a Muslim is bathing at the public baths. ...It is also incumbent upon Muslims that they should not accept from them victuals with which they had come into contact, such as distillates, which cannot be purified. If something can be purified, such as clothes, if they are dry, they can be accepted, they are clean. But if they had come into contact with those clothes in moisture they should be rinsed with water after being obtained. ...It would also be better if the ruler of the Muslims would establish that all infidels could not move out of their homes on days when it rains or snows because they would make Muslims impure.”
Muhammad Baqir Majlesi (1616 – 1698 AD), Lightning Bolts Against the Jews

Al-Shanqeeti[edit]

In this verse [5:51] Allaah tells us that whoever takes the Jews and Christians as friends is one of them because of his taking them as friends. Elsewhere Allaah states that taking them as friends incurs the wrath of Allaah and His eternal punishment, and that if the one who takes them as friends was a true believer he would not have taken them as friends. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning)
Taking non-Muslims as friends
Fatwa by Shaykh al-Shanqeeti

Sayyid Qutb[edit]

History witnessed repeated violations by the Jews of their treaties with the Muslim state in Madinah, as also their scheming against the Muslims. These violations led to the encounters with the Jewish tribes of Qaynuqa, al-Nadir and Qurayzah, and also the Battle of Khaybar. Their efforts to bring together all the forces hostile to Islam in an unholy affiance, with the aim of exterminating Islam altogether, are well known.

They have continued to scheme against Islam and the Muslim community ever since. They were instrumental in the chaotic events that led to the assassination of the third rightly-guided Caliph. 'Uthman ibn 'Affan and to the emergence of division in the Muslim community. They were the main culprits in the conflict that took place between 'Ali and Mu 'awiyah. They led the way in the fabrication of false statements attributed to the Prophet, historical reports and baseless interpretations of Qur'anic statements. They also paved the way to the victory of the Tartars and their conquest of Baghdad and the fall of the Islamic Caliphate.

In modern history, the Jews have been behind every calamity that has befallen the Muslim communities everywhere. They give active support to every attempt to crush the modem Islamic revival and extend their protection to every regime that suppresses such a revival.

History Tells Its Tale

The other people of earlier revelations. the Christians, have been no less hostile. Enmity between the Byzantines and the Persians went back for centuries. Nevertheless, as soon as the Church felt that Islam. the new faith, represented a threat to its concocted version of Christianity, which was no more than a collection of ancient pagan legends, misguided inventions and a handful of statements from the Prophet Jesus, both camps buried all their past enmity and age old-hatred to confront the new faith together.

Then the expedition to Tabuk. which is the major subject of discussion in this surah, took place. followed by the march of the army commanded by Usamah ibn Zayd. This was prepared by the Prophet and dispatched by his successor, Abu Bakr. in a demonstration of power to confront the Byzantine forces being mobilized to suppress the voice of Islam. Then the Muslims achieved a great victory in the Battle of Yarmuk against the Byzantines. This ushered in the liberation of wide areas of Syria, Egypt, North Africa and the Mediterranean from Byzantine colonialism. and the consolidation of an Islamic base in Andalusia. These final rulings. as they are stated in this surah, deal with a specific situation that obtained in Arabia, and serve. in a sense. as a legislative prelude to the Tabuk campaign. the-central issue of the surah, which sought to confront the Byzantine mobilization close to the Arabian borders. But the attitude of the people of earlier revelations and their hostility to Islam and the Muslim community were not the result of any particular historical event. or limited to any stage. That is a permanent reality. They will continue to be at war with Islam until the Muslims have abandoned their faith altogether. This hostility and the war it launches will continue to be fed by all possible means. Hence, the rulings outlined in this surah remain in full effect, unlimited to a particular period of history.

A Fight until Submission

Fight against those who-despite having been given Scripture-do not truly believe in God and the Last Day. and do not treat as forbidden that which God and His Messenger have forbidden, and do not follow the religion of truth, till they [agree to] pay the submission tax with a willing hand, after they have been humbled. (Verse 29)

This verse and the ones that follow were meant to prepare the Muslims for their expedition to Tabuk and the confrontation with the Byzantines and their puppet regime of Christian Arabs, known as the Ghassanld. This suggests that the descriptions we have here were true of the people on the other side of the confrontation. They simply show the reality of those people. These descriptions are not mentioned here as conditions for fighting the people of earlier revelations, but as qualities inherent in their distorted beliefs and the actual reality of those people. Hence they provide the justification for fighting them. The ruling also applies to all those who share the same beliefs and characteristics.

This verse specifies three such characteristics. (1) They do not believe in God and the Last Day; (2) they do not treat as forbidden what God has forbidden; and (3) they do not believe in the religion of truth. The verses that follow show how these characteristics apply to them.

Firstly, the Jews claim that Ezra is the son of God, and the Christians assert that Christ is His son. These claims echo similar ones made by the pagans of former times. Hence, they are to be treated on the same basis as people who do not believe in God and the Last Day. Secondly, they treat their rabbis and their monks, as well as Jesus Christ, as their Lords, in place of God. This is in total conflict with the principles of the faith of truth which is based on total submission to God alone, who has no partners. As they make such claims they demonstrate that they are idolaters who do not follow the true faith. Thirdly, they try to put out the light of God's guidance with their mouths. In other words, they are at war with the divine faith. No one is ever at war with the divine faith if he truly believes in God. Fourthly, many of their monks and rabbis devour peoples property without any justification. They do so knowing that their claims to such property are false. Hence they do not treat as forbidden what God and His Messenger have made forbidden, whether we take this statement as referring to the Messenger sent to them or to the Prophet Muhammad.

All these characteristics were true of the Christians in Syria and the Byzantines, as well as other Christians ever since Church Synods distorted the faith preached by Jesus Christ and claimed that he was the son of God and invented the concept of the Trinity, the conflict between the different sects and churches over the concept of Trinity notwithstanding. What we have here then is a general order stating a universal rule that applies to all those among the people of earlier revelations who share the same characteristics as the Christians of Syria and Byzantium. Aggression has been committed in the first place, against God's Lordship of the universe and against human beings who are forced to submit to deities other than God. As Islam tries to defend God's Lordship and human dignity, ignorance will try to stop it by aggression and war. This is the reality we have to realize. This Qur'anic verse commands the Muslims to fight against those among the people of earlier revelations who "do not believe in God and the Last Day." A person who claims that Ezra or Jesus is the son of God cannot be described as a believer in God. The same applies to a person who says that the Christ is the Lord, or that God is one of a Trinity, or that He manifested Himself in Jesus. It further applies to all concepts formulated by the Synods, diverse as these concepts are.Nor can we describe as believers in God and the Last-Day-those who say that they will suffer God's punishment only for a few days no matter what sins they may commit because God loves them as His sons and daughters, or because they are God's chosen people. The same applies to those who claim that all sins are forgiven through a holy communion with Jesus Christ, which is the only way to achieve forgiveness. Neither of these two groups can be described as believers in God or in the Last Day.

This verse also describes the people of earlier revelations as ones who do not treat as forbidden what God and His Messenger have made forbidden. Whether the term "His Messenger" refers to the Messenger whom God sent to them in particular or to the Prophet Muhammad, the import is the same. The following verses explain this by saying that they devour other people's property by false claims, an action which has been forbidden in all divine messages and by all God's messengers. Some of the clearest examples of this are usurious transactions, the sale of bonds of forgiveness by the Church, opposition to the divine faith with brutal force as well as trying to turn believers away from their faith. Another clear example is forcing people to submit to beings other than God, and forcing them to implement laws other than those revealed by God. All these examples are covered by the description: "who do not treat as forbidden what God and His Messenger have forbidden." All this applies today to the people of earlier revelations as was applicable to them when this verse was revealed.

The Qur'anic verse also describes them as not following "the religion of truth." This is clear from what we have already said. It is not part of the religion of truth to believe in the Lordship of anyone other than God, or to apply a law different from God's law, or to accept legislation enacted by any authority other than God, or to submit to anyone other than Him. All these qualities are today true of the people of earlier revelations, as it was true of them then. The condition simply that they should pay the tribute, or the submission tax, with a willing hand and that they be utterly subdued. What is the purpose of this condition, and why is it the end at which all fighting must stop? The answer is found in the fact that with such characteristics, the people of earlier revelations place themselves at war with the divine faith, both in belief and in practical terms. They are also at war with Islamic society because of the inherent conflict between the codes of living derived from the divine faith on the one hand and ignorance, or jahiliyyah, on the other. As described in these verses, the people of earlier revelations belong to jahiliyyah in both beliefs and practices. History also proves the nature of conflict, and the impossibility of co-existence between the two codes. The people of earlier revelations were determined in their opposition to the Islamic faith in the period preceding the revelation of this verse, and in the period following it, up to the present day.

As the only religion of truth that exists on earth today, Islam takes appropriate action to remove all physical and material obstacles that try to impede its efforts to liberate mankind from submission to anyone other than God. That submission is translated in following the religion of truth, provided that every human being is given free choice. There must be no pressure either from the religion itself or from those forces putting up the physical obstacles. The practical way to ensure the removal of those physical obstacles while not forcing anyone to adopt Islam is to smash the power of those authorities based on false beliefs until they declare their submission and demonstrate this by paying the submission tax. When this happens, the process of liberating mankind is completed by giving every individual the freedom of choice based on conviction. Anyone who is not convinced may continue to follow his faith. However, he has to pay the submission tax to fulfill a number of objectives...by paying this tax, known as jizyah, he declares that he will not stand in physical opposition to the efforts advocating the true Divine faith. [1]
Sayyid Qutb (D. 1966), In the Shade of the Qur'an, vol. 8: Surah 9

Al-Munajjid[edit]

Praise be to Allaah.

The Jews wanted to kill the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on several occasions, ... This is in addition to the recorded crimes of the Jews which know no limit in ancient or modern times. The enmity between us and them will last until we fight them and kill them at the end of time, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) has told us.

See al-Yahood fi’l-Sunnah al-Mutahharah, by Dr. ‘Abd-Allaah ibn Naasir al-Shaqaari; Zaad al-Ma’aad, 3/279

And Allaah knows best.
Yes, this belief [Trinity] is mentioned in the Qur’aan, but that is by way of refutation and proving it to be false, and describing the one who believes in it as a kaafir and mushrik.Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 5:17, Qur'an 5:73 & Qur'an 9:31]

This is something that is well known among the Muslims, and they are unanimously agreed that the Christians are kaafirs, and even that those who do not regard them as kaafirs are also kaafirs. Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhaab said concerning the things which are unanimously agreed to nullify Islam:

“Whoever does not regard the mushrikoon as kaafirs, or doubts that they are kaafirs, or thinks their religion is correct, is himself a kaafir.”
. . .

This trinity in which the Christians believe is not one of the things that lead to shirk [disbelief, polytheism], rather it is the essence of shirk. The trinity that the later Christians have fabricated has no evidence in reason and fitrah (the innate nature of man), and there is nothing to support it in the divinely-revealed Books which Allaah sent down.
The Jews and Christians are both kaafirs and mushrikeen. They are kaafirs because they deny the truth and reject it. And they are mushrikeen because they worship someone other than Allaah.

Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 9:30-31 and Qur'an 98:1]

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said, refuting those who say that the word mushrikeen cannot be applied to the People of the Book:

It is most likely that the people of the Book are included among the mushrikeen, men and women alike, when this word is used in general terms. because the kuffaar are undoubtedly mushrikeen. Hence they are forbidden to enter al-Masjid al-Haraam, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 9:28 and Qur'an 9:31]

So they are all described as mushrikeen, because the Jews said that ‘Uzayr is the son of God and the Christians said that the Messiah is the son of God; and because they took their priests and rabbis as lords instead of Allaah. All of this is the worst form of shirk. And there are many similar verses. End quote.

Majmoo’ Fataawa al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz, 4/274
This opinion about the Christians is well established and does not stem from the Crusades or the oppression of the colonialists and their aggression against Muslim lands. If anyone rejects the [uncurrupted] message of Jesus (peace be upon him) or the [uncurrupted] message of Moses (peace be upon him) or the message of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), he is a kaafir (disbeliever). If anyone denies that this Qur’aan was revealed from God, or mocks it, he is a kaafir, because the Qur'aan was revealed from Allaah.

Ibn Baz[edit]

The marriage of a Christian man to a Muslim woman is an invalid marriage. Allah says in the Quran,

"And give not [Muslim women] in marriage to idolaters until they believe"

(al-Baqara 221).

Therefore, it is not allowed for a disbeliever to marry a Muslim woman. Allah also says,

"They [Muslim women] are not lawful for them [the disbelievers] nor are they [the disbelievers] lawful for them" (al-Mumtahana 10).

If he does marry her, the marriage is invalid. The children are the children of fornication. They are to be given to their mother and ascribed to her alone -- unless that was done out of ignorance concerning such law. For ignorant people, the matter is different. In their case, the marriage is still invalid. However, the children will be ascribed to the father since the act was done out of ignorance. That is, if he was ignorant of the law and she was also, the marriage is still invalid but the children will be ascribed to their parents due to their ignorance and there was some doubtful aspect to their intercourse.1 But if he knew the Islamic ruling and she knew the Islamic ruling and they were being lax and disrespectful of the law of Allah, then the children are children of fornication. They will be ascribed to their mother and will not be ascribed to their father at all. The couple should be reprimanded and the penal punishment should be enforced upon him for having intercourse with a Muslim woman when he did not have the legal right to do so. This is what must be done if the Islamic state has the ability to do it. If he becomes Muslim after that and Allah guides him, then he can marry her with a new contract.
Ruling Concerning a Christian Man Marrying a Muslim Woman
Shaikh ibn Baz, Q&A site of the Muslim Students Organization of the University of Houston

Al-Qaradawi[edit]

Throughout history, Allah has imposed upon the [Jews] people who would punish them for their corruption. The last punishment was carried out by Hitler. By means of all the things he did to them – even though they exaggerated this issue – he managed to put them in their place. This was divine punishment for them. Allah willing, the next time will be at the hand of the believers[2]
Yusuf al-Qaradawi, January 30, 2009
Oh Allah, take your enemies, the enemies of Islam. Oh Allah, take the Jews, the treacherous aggressors. Oh Allah, take this profligate, cunning, arrogant band of people. Oh Allah, they have spread much tyranny and corruption in the land. Pour Your wrath upon them, oh our God. Lie in wait for them. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people of Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, and You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale. Oh Allah, You annihilated the people Thamoud at the hand of a tyrant, You annihilated the people of 'Aad with a fierce, icy gale, and You destroyed the Pharaoh and his soldiers — oh Allah, take this oppressive, tyrannical band of people. Oh Allah, take this oppressive, Jewish, Zionist band of people. Oh Allah, do not spare a single one of them. Oh Allah, count their numbers, and kill them, down to the very last one.[3]
Yusuf al-Qaradawi, January 9, 2009
... disbelievers may be Jews, Christians or both or even pagans, who follow no particular religion at all. Disbelievers are all alike.

Capitalists, Communists, Westerners, Easterners, People of the Book and pagans are by no means different from one other. They should all be fiercely fought if they attempt to occupy any part of the Muslim land.
Spending Zakah Money on Jihad
Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, IslamOnline, March 9, 2011

Al-Qayrawani[edit]

43.1f. Greeting People of the Book

You should not initiate the greeting to a Jew or Christian. If a Muslim inadvertently greets a dhimmi, he does take it back. If a Jew or Christian greets a Muslim, he should answer, "On you ('alayk)." It is also said that one may answer with "And on you silam." "Silam" means a stone. That used to be said.

[ It is confirmed that the Prophet. may Allah bless him and grant him peace, forbade initiating it. This prohibition is one of dislike. If someone greets one of them, thinking he is a Muslim, he does not seek the reply by saying something like, "I greeted you thinking that you were a Muslim. If I had known that you were an unbeliever, I would not have greeted you. Return to me the greeting I gave you." When he replies to their greeting, he says, "On you" without the waw so that it is against him.]
The Risala of 'Abdullah ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani
A Treatise on Maliki Fiqh (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dani by al-Azhari)(310/922 - 386/996)

Tantawi[edit]

[The] Qur’an describes the Jews with their own particular degenerate characteristics, i.e. killing the prophets of Allah, corrupting His words by putting them in the wrong places, consuming the people’s wealth frivolously, refusal to distance themselves from the evil they do, and other ugly characteristics caused by their deep-rooted lasciviousness…only a minority of the Jews keep their word….[A]ll Jews are not the same. The good ones become Muslims, the bad ones do not. (Qur’an 3:113)[4]
Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi, Banu Isra’il fi al-Qur’an wa al-Sunna

Ibn Qayyim[edit]

The Jews are the cursed nation who Allah (swt) is angry with, they are the people of lies, fabrications, treachery, conspiracies and are murderers of the Prophets and Messengers.

They are the people of usury and bribery, the filthiest nation and have the lowest of characters, farthest from mercy and closest to revenge. They have the habit of animosity and hatred.

Their attributes are aggression and disputing, of black magic and sorcery, lies and tricks, they don’t hold any sanctity for those who differ with them and do not respect any covenant and sanctity with any believers.

They will have no rights or kindness for the one who agrees with them. There is no fairness, justice, security or tranquillity for the one who associates with them or the one who mixes with them.

For the ones whom they work for, they give bad advice. The wise amongst them are filthy and the experts among them are cheats and the good among them (Allah forbid) are not really Jews.

They are the most narrow minded and impatient, the most oppressive, their houses are smelly and filthy and in their suburbs they wear clothes that frighten you. Their salutation is a curse, their meeting is pessimistic and their sign is anger showered with venom.[5]
The Christians are misguided cross worshippers. They are those who swear at Allah (swt) the Creator in a way no other human has sworn at Allah (swt).

They are like those before who did not believe that Allah is unique as stated in Surah Ikhlas, nor do they make him greater than everything; rather they say, “the heaven and earth will crack and the mountains will fall down.”

The base of their Aqeedah and their biggest curse against Allah (swt) is the Trinity. According to the Christians Mariam (as) is the lover of Allah (swt) and Isa (as) is His son. They claim the Almighty Allah came down from His great chair and melted in the womb of Mariam (as), until He was killed and buried at the hands of man.

Its Deen is the worship of the cross; its supplication is for the images that are drawn on the wall, in red and yellow colours. They say in their prayer “O mother of God provide for us, forgive us and have mercy on us.”

Their Deen is to drink alcohol, eat pork, desert circumcision, worship with impurity and eat everything, even if is filthy, whether that be the elephant or the mosquito. What is lawful and unlawful is what their priests say; the priests can take them to heaven and forgive their sins.[5]

Miscellaneous[edit]

Question

What are the Ayah in Qur'an which mentioned the Christians and Jews and explain the Islam's position towards both religions?

Answer

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the World; and may His blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.

So many verses in the Noble Qur'an show the prejudice, hatred and disbelief by the non-believers. They unduly change the words of the Scriptures as they like, and attribute to Allah some disgraceful qualities.

The Jews and Christians are called the "People of the Scripture" (or the Book). Due to the notoriety of the crusades among the Muslims, the Church officials preferred to be called Christians despite the fact that they are not true followers of Jesus Christ. Muslims should have no doubt that they are Kafirs. Please find below some of the verses in the Qur'an which refer to the Christians and Jews and their hostile attitude towards the Muslims:

The Noble Qur'an:

{Verily, those who disbelieve (in the religion of Islâm, the Qur'ân and Prophet Muhammad ()) from among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and Al-Mushrikûn will abide in the Fire of Hell. They are the worst of creatures.} [98:6].

{Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allâh, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.} [9:29].

{They (Jews and Christians) took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allâh (by obeying them in things which they made lawful or unlawful according to their own desires without being ordered by Allâh), and (they also took as their Lord) Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), while they (Jews and Christians) were commanded [in the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)) to worship none but One Ilâh (God - Allâh) Lâ ilâha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). Praise and glory be to Him, (far above is He) from having the partners they associate (with Him)."} [9:31].

{Say: "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you reject the Ayât of Allâh (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) while Allâh is Witness to what you do?"} [3:98].

{And the Jews say: 'Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allâh, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allâh. That is a saying from their mouths. They imitate the saying of the disbelievers of old. Allâh's Curse be on them, how they are deluded away from the truth!} [9:30].

Allah knows best.
Qur'an's position regarding Christians and Jews
Islam Web, Fatwa No. 84149, May 13, 2002

The following fatwa from Islamweb rules the Bible suitable for use by Muslims when cleaning after defecation. This is not a fringe opinion of an extremist cleric. The Shari'ah permits this, and specialists on Shari'ah have through the centuries discussed its legitimacy.

Question: "Does someone who insults the Torah or the New Testament engage in apostasy, given that these include some words of God?"

Answer: "It would be impermissible to disdain the Torah and New Testament if they contained the truth and the name of the exalted, such as the name of God the Most High. Whoever does this [i.e., disrespect the books] knowingly and by choice would be considered an apostate and would be despised by God. But [in fact] the Torah and New Testament do not have anything exalted in them. They are known to have been corrupted, so there is no problem disdaining them.

Ash-Shams[ad-Din] Ar-Ramli [d.1004 A.D.] said in [his book of fiqh] Nihayat al-Muhtaj: "It is impermissible to use respected books like those of hadith and fiqh for anal cleansing after defecation (al-istinja',الأستنجاء ), but non-respected books like philosophy, Torah and the New Testament, which are known as corrupt and which do not contain exalted names, can be used for anal cleansing after defecation."
Judgment: Despising the Torah or the New Testament (screenshot)
Mawsu'at al-Fatawi, Islamweb, Fatwa No. 40378, November 23, 2003

The following comments were made in response to a Saudi sitcom (aired August, 2010) which portrayed Christian characters in a positive light.

A Muslim is allowed to praise only the one true religion -- Islam.[6]
Judge at the Justice Ministry, Eissa al-Ghaith
The indecent lot of 'Tash Ma Tash' ... used drama to destroy Muslims' stable religious principles by portraying Christians as believers and not apostates.[6]
Islamic scholar, Abdulwahab al-Salhi
This page is featured in the core article, Islam and the People of the Book which serves as a starting point for anyone wishing to learn more about this topic Core part.png

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Sayyid Qutb, In the Shade of the Qur'an, vol. 8: Surah 9 (Leicestershire, UK, 2003), pp. 1 15- 16, 120-23.
  2. Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi: Allah Imposed Hitler On the Jews to Punish Them – 'Allah Willing, the Next Time Will Be at the Hand of the Believers' - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 2224, February 3, 2009
  3. Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi Incites against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S., and Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks, Marks and Spencer - MEMRI TV, Video Clip No. 1979, Al-Jazeera TV (Qatar) - January 9, 2009 - 10:44
  4. Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi. Banu Isra’il fi al-Qur’an wa al-Sunna [Jews in the Qur’an and the Traditions], Cairo, 1986
  5. 5.0 5.1 Qayyim, Ibn, "Hidayatul Hayara Fi Ajwibatul Yahud wa al-Nasara", Translated by Abedelhay El-Masri, Dar al-Kotob al-Ilmiyah, Beirut Lebanon, 2001
  6. 6.0 6.1 Souhail Karam - Saudi sitcom row tests tolerance toward Christians - Reuters, August 15, 2010