Difference between revisions of "Portal: Early Islamic History"

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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Textual History of the Qur'an|summary= The history of the Qur'an as a text comports in many way to the description we have of it in Islamic sources--although there are some discrepancies.|description=}} {{PortalArticle|image=|title=Mary, Sister of Aaron|summary= The author(s) of surat-Maryam, the surah of Mary, seems to be under the mistaken impression that Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, was also a sister of Aaron, the brother of Moses|description=}}{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Scientific Errors in the Quran|summary= Sunni orthodoxy claims that the Qur'an is infallible when it speaks of matters of science, but a close comparison to the scientific undestanding of the text of the Qur'an to modern science shows many revealing mistakes|description=}}  
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Battle of Badr|summary= The battle of Badr was the prophet's first battle and one of his most successful; Muhammad's success here gave faith, both to himself and the movement, and the tradition sees proof of divine aide both in the Qur'an and the sira account of the battle.|description=}} {{PortalArticle|image=|title=The Massacre of the Banu Qurayza|summary= The massacre of the Jewsih tribe of Banu Qurayzah remains one of the most controversial events of the [[sira]] to this day; a great victory for Muhammad and the Muslims, the mercilessness with which he dealt with his Jewish enemies leaves many questions about the character of the prophet.|description=}}{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Scientific Errors in the Quran|summary= Sunni orthodoxy claims that the Qur'an is infallible when it speaks of matters of science, but a close comparison to the scientific undestanding of the text of the Qur'an to modern science shows many revealing mistakes|description=}}  
 
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=Sana'a Manuscript|summary= The majority of the manuscripts of the Qur'an which are today extant seem to be descended from the recension that was ordered created by the caliph [[Uthman]], and show a remarkable uniformity; a palimpset, or impression of an erased Qur'an, on a scroll which was found in the Yemeni city of San'a, however, reveals a manuscript with some remarkable differences from the accepted Uthmanic recension|description=}} {{PortalArticle|image=|title=Naskh (Abrogation)|summary= Many verses in the Qur'an disagree with eachother, sometimes on important points; the doctrine of Naskh explains which vesers take precedence in any given conflict, and how this is decided by the scholars.|description=}}
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{{PortalArticle|image=|title=List of Killings Ordered or Supported by Muhammad|summary= Muhammad ordered many people who oppossed him or the Muslim movement to be killed.|description=}} {{PortalArticle|image=|title=List of expeditions of Muhammad|summary= The original title of the works of the sira were the maghaazi|description=}}
 
  {{PortalArticle|image=|title=Asbab al-Nuzul (Revelational Circumstances of the Quran)|summary= This special page is a series of resources for the English-speaking student, researcher or reader as opposed to an encyclopedia article. It contains all of the [[surah|suwar]] of the Qur'an along with the associated asbab al-nuzul or "revelational circumstances", explaining how the Islamic tradition sees the circumstances of each revelation.|description=}}
 
  {{PortalArticle|image=|title=Asbab al-Nuzul (Revelational Circumstances of the Quran)|summary= This special page is a series of resources for the English-speaking student, researcher or reader as opposed to an encyclopedia article. It contains all of the [[surah|suwar]] of the Qur'an along with the associated asbab al-nuzul or "revelational circumstances", explaining how the Islamic tradition sees the circumstances of each revelation.|description=}}
 
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Revision as of 17:51, 10 February 2021


The first centuries of the Islamic Hijri calendar, starting in the CE year 622, were the formative years of the religion. Between the first and third Islamic centuries the Qur'an was written down and codified, the prophet lived and died, the great hadith collections were gathered, the sira of the prophet was committed to writing, the great schools of Sunni jurisprudence came to be, and the theology of Islam attained its familiar form. The end of the Abassid period saw the "crystallization" of the Islamic tradition around the Sunnah of the prophet and the Qur'an placed in creation before all time and space after the defeat of the Mu'atazilite heresy. These years thus can be said to cover the formation of the religion of Islam as we know it today.

Career of the Prophet

The career of the prophet forms the basis of his Sunnah, as such his doings are of utmost importance to the latter generations of believers. Muhammad also shows up in the non-Islamic history of the region, though surprisingly not where we might expect him to be from the Islamic narrative.

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The battle of Badr was the prophet's first battle and one of his most successful; Muhammad's success here gave faith, both to himself and the movement, and the tradition sees proof of divine aide both in the Qur'an and the sira account of the battle.

[[File:|150px]]

The massacre of the Jewsih tribe of Banu Qurayzah remains one of the most controversial events of the sira to this day; a great victory for Muhammad and the Muslims, the mercilessness with which he dealt with his Jewish enemies leaves many questions about the character of the prophet.

[[File:|150px]]

Sunni orthodoxy claims that the Qur'an is infallible when it speaks of matters of science, but a close comparison to the scientific undestanding of the text of the Qur'an to modern science shows many revealing mistakes

[[File:|150px]]

Muhammad ordered many people who oppossed him or the Muslim movement to be killed.

[[File:|150px]]

The original title of the works of the sira were the maghaazi

[[File:|150px]]

This special page is a series of resources for the English-speaking student, researcher or reader as opposed to an encyclopedia article. It contains all of the suwar of the Qur'an along with the associated asbab al-nuzul or "revelational circumstances", explaining how the Islamic tradition sees the circumstances of each revelation.

Other articles in this section

Hadith

Orthodox Sunni and Shi'i Islam see the prophet as Uswa Hasana, the perfect, "complete" man for all times and all cultures. As such the record of the prophet's words and deeds, the hadith, constitute the fundamental building block for Islamic fiqh in addition to the Qur'an. The hadith literature is truly vastly, including dozens of volumes by many different muhaddiths or hadith scholars.

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Sahih Bukhari is the most esteemed collection of hadith, held second only to the Qur'an itself in the Sunni tradition in terms of authority. Put together by a central Asian scholar over 200 years after the death of the prophet, Sahih Bukhari contains only hadith which receive the highest level of approval from Sunni scholars.

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Sahih صحيح or "correct" is the highest level of trustworthiness that the Sunni tradition can assign to a particular hadith.

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Like the Qur'an, orthodox Sunni tradition holds that the words of the prophet were unerring on matters of science. Even many "sahih" hadith, though, betray a pre-modern understanding of natural world which clearly falls in line with ancient belief rather than the findings modern science.

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Tawaatur is a designation given to hadith which are attested to by multiple chains of transmission, called isnaads (asaanid أسانيد in Arabic).

Other articles in this section

The Early Caliphate

The sira, or life of the prophet, makes up the third cornerstone of Islamic scripture. The sira literature begins with the sirat rasul Allah, or Life of the Apostle of Allah by ibn Ishaq, which has not survived to the current day but which was retained by his student ibn Hisham and also partially in the history of the Islamic polymath Tabari, and continued by other Islamic writers.

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The sirat of ibn Ishaq is the earliest Islamic document now extant detailing the life of the prophet Muhammad in chronological order.


Other articles in this section

Tafsir

The tafsir تفسير literally "explanation" is a genre of Islamic literature which explains the Qur'an, drawing on multiple traditions such as the stories of the Israelis (Israeliyyaat), the hadith and the sira.

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ِThe tafsir literature is essential to the orthodox Sunni understanding of the Qur'an, and forms a fourth source of scripture for orthodox Sunni Muslims.


The Formation of the Qur'an and Classical Arabic

All Articles