The Pact of Umar
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The Pact of Umar (العهدة العمرية, Al-'Uhda Al-'Umariyya) (637 AD) is an agreement between a subdued Christian population and the Muslim invaders lead by Umar Ibn Al-Khattab, the second of the "rightly-guided" (rashidun) caliphs.
In traditional, mainstream circles, this document is and continues to be almost universally accepted as genuine by Islamic scholars. This view is echoed by some of Islam's greatest scholars and historians, including al-Khallal (d. 923 AD), Ibn Hazm (d. 1063 AD), al-Tartushi (d. 1126 AD), Ibn Qudama (d. 1123 AD), Ibn Taymiyyah (d. 1138 AD), Ibn ‘Asakir (d. 1176 AD), Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350 AD), Ibn Kathir, al-Hindi and ‘Ali ‘Ajin. The eighth-century Hanafi jurist, Abu Yusuf, further noted that the terms in the Pact dealing with dhimmis are clearly in agreement with the Qur'an and hadith literature. Therefore, the Pact "stands till the day of resurrection."
Some secular scholars, and more recently, certain influential Islamic apologists, have doubted the authenticity of this document (as they also have the hadith literature and the Qur'an itself), but what has not been disagreed about is that what is described within this document was practiced by the early Muslims. For example, the use of distinguishing marks is consistent with documentary and archaeological evidence from seventh and eighth century Iraq and Syria.
Text of Pact
- we will neither erect in our areas a monastery,
- or a sanctuary for a monk,
- nor restore any place of worship that needs restoration
- nor use any of them for the purpose of enmity against Muslims.
- We will not prevent any Muslim from resting in our churches whether they come by day or night,
- and we will open the doors [of our houses of worship] for the wayfarer and passerby.
- Those Muslims who come as guests, will enjoy boarding and food for three days.
- We will not allow a spy against Muslims into our churches and homes or hide deceit [or betrayal] against Muslims.
- We will not teach our children the Qur'an,
- publicize practices of Shirk,
- invite anyone to Shirk
- or prevent any of our fellows from embracing Islam, if they choose to do so.
- We will respect Muslims,
- move from the places we sit in if they choose to sit in them.
- We will not imitate their clothing, caps, turbans, sandals, hairstyles, speech, nicknames and title names,
- or ride on saddles,
- hang swords on the shoulders, collect weapons of any kind or carry these weapons.
- We will not encrypt our stamps in Arabic,
- or sell liquor.
- We will have the front of our hair cut,
- wear our customary clothes wherever we are,
- wear belts around our waist,
- refrain from erecting crosses on the outside of our churches
- and demonstrating them and our books in public in Muslim fairways and markets.
- We will not sound the bells in our churches, except discretely,
- or raise our voices while reciting our holy books inside our churches in the presence of Muslims,
- nor raise our voices [with prayer] at our funerals,
- or light torches in funeral processions in the fairways of Muslims, or their markets.
- We will not bury our dead next to Muslim dead,
- or buy servants who were captured by Muslims.
- We will be guides for Muslims and refrain from breaching their privacy in their homes.'
- We will not beat any Muslim.
These are the conditions that we set against ourselves and followers of our religion in return for safety and protection. If we break any of these promises that we set for your benefit against ourselves, then our Dhimmah (promise of protection) is broken and you are allowed to do with us what you are allowed of people of defiance and rebellion.'
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- Robinson, Chase F. - Neck-Sealing in early Islam - (BRILL) Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Volume 48, Number 3, 2005 , pp. 401-441(41)
- Tafsir ibn Kathir - Paying Jizyah is a Sign of Kufr and Disgrace