Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Creation

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Qur'an[edit]

Heavens and Earth[edit]

"To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is"
Your Guardian-Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority): He draweth the night as a veil o'er the day, each seeking the other in rapid succession: He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, (all) governed by laws under His command. Is it not His to create and to govern? Blessed be Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the worlds!
Verily your Lord is Allah, who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and is firmly established on the throne (of authority), regulating and governing all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His leave (hath been obtained). This is Allah your Lord; Him therefore serve ye: will ye not receive admonition?
He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was over the waters - that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct. But if thou wert to say to them, "Ye shall indeed be raised up after death", the Unbelievers would be sure to say, "This is nothing but obvious sorcery!"
He Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between, in six days, and is firmly established on the Throne (of Authority): Allah Most Gracious: ask thou, then, about Him of any acquainted (with such things).
Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds.

He set on the (earth), mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth, and measure therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (Sustenance). Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke: He said to it and to the earth: "Come ye together, willingly or unwillingly." They said: "We do come (together), in willing obedience."

So He completed them as seven firmaments in two Days, and He assigned to each heaven its duty and command. And We adorned the lower heaven with lights, and (provided it) with guard. Such is the Decree of (Him) the Exalted in Might, Full of Knowledge.

Adam and Eve[edit]

It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth; Moreover His design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge.

Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said: "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?- whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not."

And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if ye are right."

They said: "Glory to Thee, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom."

He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"

And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith.

We said: "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression."

Then did Satan make them slip from the (garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: "Get ye down, all (ye people), with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood - for a time."

Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord Turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.

We said: "Get ye down all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from me, whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
... If they party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable Himself to dictate, Let his guardian dictate faithfully, and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her. The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (For evidence) ...
The similitude of Jesus before Allah is as that of Adam; He created him from dust, then said to him: "Be". And he was.
O mankind! Be careful of your duty to your Lord Who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate and from them twain hath spread abroad a multitude of men and women. Be careful of your duty toward Allah in Whom ye claim (your rights) of one another, and toward the wombs (that bare you). Lo! Allah hath been a watcher over you.
It is We Who have placed you with authority on earth, and provided you therein with means for the fulfilment of your life: small are the thanks that ye give!

It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and they prostrate; not so Iblis; He refused to be of those who prostrate.

(Allah) said: "What prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst create me from fire, and him from clay."

(Allah) said: "Get thee down from this: it is not for thee to be arrogant here: get out, for thou art of the meanest (of creatures)."

He said: "Give me respite till the day they are raised up."

(Allah) said: "Be thou among those who have respite."

He said: "Because thou hast thrown me out of the way, lo! I will lie in wait for them on thy straight way:

"Then will I assault them from before them and behind them, from their right and their left: Nor wilt thou find, in most of them, gratitude (for thy mercies)."

(Allah) said: "Get out from this, disgraced and expelled. If any of them follow thee,- Hell will I fill with you all.

"O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and enjoy (its good things) as ye wish: but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression."

Then began Satan to whisper suggestions to them, bringing openly before their minds all their shame that was hidden from them (before): he said: "Your Lord only forbade you this tree, lest ye should become angels or such beings as live for ever."

And he swore to them both, that he was their sincere adviser.

So by deceit he brought about their fall: when they tasted of the tree, their shame became manifest to them, and they began to sew together the leaves of the garden over their bodies. And their Lord called unto them: "Did I not forbid you that tree, and tell you that Satan was an avowed enemy unto you?"

They said: "Our Lord! We have wronged our own souls: If thou forgive us not and bestow not upon us Thy Mercy, we shall certainly be lost."

(Allah) said: "Get ye down. With enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood,- for a time."

He said: "Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die; but from it shall ye be taken out (at last)."

O ye Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover your shame, as well as to be an adornment to you. But the raiment of righteousness,- that is the best. Such are among the Signs of Allah, that they may receive admonition!

O ye Children of Adam! Let not Satan seduce you, in the same manner as He got your parents out of the Garden, stripping them of their raiment, to expose their shame: for he and his tribe watch you from a position where ye cannot see them: We made the evil ones friends (only) to those without faith.
He it is Who did create you from a single soul, and therefrom did make his mate that he might take rest in her. And when he covered her she bore a light burden, and she passed (unnoticed) with it, but when it became heavy they cried unto Allah, their Lord, saying: If thou givest unto us aright we shall be of the thankful.
And He it is Who spread out the earth and placed therein firm hills and flowing streams, and of all fruits He placed therein two spouses (male and female). He covereth the night with the day. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who take thought.
We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape;

And the Jinn race, We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind.

Behold! thy Lord said to the angels: "I am about to create man, from sounding clay from mud moulded into shape;

"When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him."

So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together:

Not so Iblis: he refused to be among those who prostrated themselves.

(Allah) said: "O Iblis! what is your reason for not being among those who prostrated themselves?"

(Iblis) said: "I am not one to prostrate myself to man, whom Thou didst create from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape."

(Allah) said: "Then get thee out from here; for thou art rejected, accursed.

"And the curse shall be on thee till the day of Judgment."

(Iblis) said: "O my Lord! give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are raised."

(Allah) said: "Respite is granted thee

"Till the Day of the Time appointed."

(Iblis) said: "O my Lord! because Thou hast put me in the wrong, I will make (wrong) fair-seeming to them on the earth, and I will put them all in the wrong,-

"Except Thy servants among them, sincere and purified (by Thy Grace)."

(Allah) said: "This (way of My sincere servants) is indeed a way that leads straight to Me.
Man We did create from a quintessence (of clay);
Just ask their opinion: are they the more difficult to create, or the (other) beings We have created? Them have We created out of a sticky clay!
Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I am about to create man from clay:

"When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My spirit, fall ye down in obeisance unto him."

So the angels prostrated themselves, all of them together:

Not so Iblis: he was haughty, and became one of those who reject Faith.

(Allah) said: "O Iblis! What prevents thee from prostrating thyself to one whom I have created with my hands? Art thou haughty? Or art thou one of the high (and mighty) ones?"

(Iblis) said: "I am better than he: thou createdst me from fire, and him thou createdst from clay."

(Allah) said: "Then get thee out from here: for thou art rejected, accursed.

"And My curse shall be on thee till the Day of Judgment."

(Iblis) said: "O my Lord! Give me then respite till the Day the (dead) are raised."

(Allah) said: "Respite then is granted thee-

"Till the Day of the Time Appointed."

(Iblis) said: "Then, by Thy power, I will put them all in the wrong,-

"Except Thy Servants amongst them, sincere and purified (by Thy Grace)."

(Allah) said: "Then it is just and fitting- and I say what is just and fitting-

"That I will certainly fill Hell with thee and those that follow thee,- every one."
He created man from sounding clay like unto pottery,

Hadith[edit]

Sahih Bukhari[edit]

Heavens and Earth[edit]

Narrated Imran bin Husain: I went to the Prophet and tied my she-camel at the gate. The people of Bani Tamim came to the Prophet who said "O Bani Tamim! Accept the good tidings." They said twice, 'You have given us the good tidings, now give us something" Then some Yemenites came to him and he said, "Accept the good tidings, O people of Yemem, for Bani Tamim refused them." They said, "We accept it, O Allah's Apostle! We have come to ask you about this matter (i.e. the start of creations)." He said, "First of all, there was nothing but Allah, and (then He created His Throne). His throne was over the water, and He wrote everything in the Book (in the Heaven) and created the Heavens and the Earth." Then a man shouted, "O Ibn Husain! Your she-camel has gone away!" So, I went away and could not see the she-camel because of the mirage. By Allah, I wished I had left that she-camel (but not that gathering).
Narrated 'Abdullah: A (Jewish) Rabbi came to Allah's Apostle and he said, "O Muhammad! We learn that Allah will put all the heavens on one finger, and the earths on one finger, and the trees on one finger, and the water and the dust on one finger, and all the other created beings on one finger. Then He will say, 'I am the King.' Thereupon the Prophet smiled so that his pre-molar teeth became visible, and that was the confirmation of the Rabbi. Then Allah's Apostle recited: 'No just estimate have they made of Allah such as due to Him.' (39.67)

Adam and Eve[edit]

Narrated Al-Qasim: 'Aisha said, "We set out with the sole intention of performing Hajj and when we reached Sarif, (a place six miles from Mecca) I got my menses. Allah's Apostle came to me while I was weeping. He said 'What is the matter with you? Have you got your menses?' I replied, 'Yes.' He said, 'This is a thing which Allah has ordained for the daughters of Adam. So do what all the pilgrims do with the exception of the Taw-af (Circumambulation) round the Ka'ba." 'Aisha added, "Allah's Apostle sacrificed cows on behalf of his wives."
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: Once Allah's Apostle went out to the Musalla (to offer the prayer) o 'Id-al-Adha or Al-Fitr prayer. Then he passed by the women and said, "O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women)." They asked, "Why is it so, O Allah's Apostle ?" He replied, "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion?" He said, "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?" They replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?" The women replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her religion."
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: On 'Id ul Fitr or 'Id ul Adha Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) went out to the Musalla. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said. "O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women)." The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the reason for it?" He replied, "O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray." Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Masud, came and asked permission to enter It was said, "O Allah's Apostle! It is Zainab." He asked, 'Which Zainab?" The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Mas'ub. He said, "Yes, allow her to enter." And she was admitted. Then she said, "O Prophet of Allah! Today you ordered people to give alms and I had an ornament and intended to give it as alms, but Ibn Masud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else." The Prophet replied, "Ibn Masud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right to it than anybody else."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Allah created Adam, making him 60 cubits tall. When He created him, He said to him, "Go and greet that group of angels, and listen to their reply, for it will be your greeting (salutation) and the greeting (salutations of your offspring." So, Adam said (to the angels), As-Salamu Alaikum (i.e. Peace be upon you). The angels said, "As-salamu Alaika wa Rahmatu-l-lahi" (i.e. Peace and Allah's Mercy be upon you). Thus the angels added to Adam's salutation the expression, 'Wa Rahmatu-l-lahi,' Any person who will enter Paradise will resemble Adam (in appearance and figure). People have been decreasing in stature since Adam's creation.
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "The first group of people who will enter Paradise, will be glittering like the full moon and those who will follow them, will glitter like the most brilliant star in the sky. They will not urinate, relieve nature, spit, or have any nasal secretions. Their combs will be of gold, and their sweat will smell like musk. The aloes-wood will be used in their centers. Their wives will be houris. All of them will look alike and will resemble their father Adam (in statute), sixty cubits tall."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "But for the Israelis, meat would not decay and but for Eve, wives would never betray their husbands."
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah 's Apostle said, "Treat women nicely, for a women is created from a rib, and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion, so, if you should try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked. So treat women nicely."
Narrated Abdullah: Allah's Apostle said, "Whenever a person is murdered unjustly, there is a share from the burden of the crime on the first son of Adam for he was the first to start the tradition of murdering."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Were it not for Bani Israel, meat would not decay; and were it not for Eve, no woman would ever betray her husband."
Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "On the Day of Resurrection the Believers will assemble and say, 'Let us ask somebody to intercede for us with our Lord.' So they will go to Adam and say, 'You are the father of all the people, and Allah created you with His Own Hands, and ordered the angels to prostrate to you, and taught you the names of all things; so please intercede for us with your Lord, so that He may relieve us from this place of ours.' Adam will say, 'I am not fit for this (i.e. intercession for you).' Then Adam will remember his sin and feel ashamed thereof. He will say, 'Go to Noah, for he was the first Apostle, Allah sent to the inhabitants of the earth.'
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Allah said: 'The son of Adam tells a lie against Me,, though he hasn't the right to do so. He abuses me though he hasn't the right to do so. As for his telling a lie against Me, it is his saying that I will not recreate him as I created him for the first time. In fact, the first creation was not easier for Me than new creation. As for his abusing Me, it is his saying that Allah has begotten children, while I am the One, the Self-Sufficient Master Whom all creatures need, I beget not, nor was I begotten, and there is none like unto Me."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should not hurt (trouble) his neighbor. And I advise you to take care of the women, for they are created from a rib and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part; if you try to straighten it, it will break, and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "Allah created Adam in his complete shape and form (directly), sixty cubits (about 30 meters) in height. When He created him, He said (to him), "Go and greet that group of angels sitting there, and listen what they will say in reply to you, for that will be your greeting and the greeting of your offspring." Adam (went and) said, 'As-Salamu alaikum (Peace be upon you).' They replied, 'AsSalamu-'Alaika wa Rahmatullah (Peace and Allah's Mercy be on you) So they increased 'Wa Rahmatullah' The Prophet added 'So whoever will enter Paradise, will be of the shape and form of Adam. Since then the creation of Adam's (offspring) (i.e. stature of human beings is being diminished continuously) to the present time."
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The first man to be called on the Day of Resurrection will be Adam who will be shown his offspring, and it will be said to them, 'This is your father, Adam.' Adam will say (responding to the call), 'Labbaik and Sa'daik' Then Allah will say (to Adam), 'Take out of your offspring, the people of Hell.' Adam will say, 'O Lord, how many should I take out?' Allah will say, 'Take out ninety-nine out of every hundred." They (the Prophet's companions) said, "O Allah's Apostle! If ninety-nine out of every one hundred of us are taken away, what will remain out of us?" He said, "My followers in comparison to the other nations are like a white hair on a black ox."
Narrated 'Abdullah: The Prophet said, "No human being is killed unjustly, but a part of responsibility for the crime is laid on the first son of Adam who invented the tradition of killing (murdering) on the earth. (It is said that he was Qabil).
Narrated Anas: Allah's Apostle said, "The believers will be assembled on the Day of Resurrection and they will say, 'Let us look for someone to intercede for us with our Lord so that He may relieve us from this place of ours.' So they will go to Adam and say, 'You are Adam, the father of mankind, and Allah created you with His Own Hands and ordered the Angels to prostrate before you, and He taught you the names of all things; so please intercede for us with our Lord so that He may relieve us.' Adam will say, to them, 'I am not fit for that,' and then he will mention to them his mistake which he has committed.' "

Sahih Muslim[edit]

Heavens and Earth[edit]

Ibn 'Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying on the Day of Victory over Mecca: There is no Hijra (emigration) but only Jihad and good intention; and when you are called to battle, then go forth. He also said on the Day of Victory over Mecca: Allah made this town sacred on the day He created the earth and the heavens; so it is -sacred by the sacred- ness conferred on it by Allah until the Day of Resurrection and fighting in it was not lawful to anyone before me, and it was made lawful for me only during an hour on one day, for it is sacred by the sacredness conferred on it by Allah until the Day of Resurrection.
Abdullah b. 'Amr b. al-'As reported: I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah ordained the measures (of quality) of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as His Throne was upon water.
Abu Haraira reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) took hold of my hands and said: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, created the clay on Saturday and He created the mountains on Sunday and He created the trees on Monday and He created the things entailing labour on Tuesday and created light on Wednesday and He caused the animals to spread on Thursday and created Adam (peace be upon him) after 'Asr on Friday;the last creation at the last hour of the hours of Friday, i. e. between afternoon and night.

Adam and Eve[edit]

...Some would say to the others: Go to Adam. And they would go to Adam and say: O Adam, thou art the father of mankind. Allah created thee by His own Hand and breathed in thee of His spirit and ordered the angels to prostrate before thee. Intercede for us with thy Lord Don't you see in what (trouble) we are? Don't you see what (misfortune) has overtaken us? Adam would say: Verily, my Lord is angry, to an extent to which He had never been angry before nor would He be angry afterward. Verily, He forbade me (to go near) that tree and I disobeyed Him. I am concerned with my own self. Go to someone else; go to Noah...
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was made to enter Paradise, on it he. was expelled from it.
Abu Huraira reported the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) as saying: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created. on it he was made to enter Paradise, on it he was expelled from it. And the last hour will take place on no day other than Friday.
A'isba (Allah be pleased with her) said: We proceeded with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) with no other Intention but that of performing the Hajj. As I was at Sarif or near it, 1 entered in the state of menses. The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) came to me and I was weeping, whereupon he said: Are you in a state of menses? I said. Yes. whereupon he said: This is what Allah has ordained for all the daughters, of Adam. Do whatever the pilgrim does. except that you should not circumambulate the House till you have washed yourself (at the end of the menses period). And the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) offered sacrifice of a cow on behalf of his wives.
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported: Woman has been created from a rib and will in no way be straightened for you; so if you wish to benefit by her, benefit by her while crookedness remains in her. And if you attempt to straighten her, you will break her, and breaking her is divorcing her.
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: He who believes in Allah and the Hereafter, if he witnesses any matter he should talk in good terms about it or keep quiet. Act kindly towards woman, for woman is created from a rib, and the most crooked part of the rib is its top. If you attempt to straighten it, you will break it, and if you leave it, its crookedness will remain there. So act kindly towards women.
Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Had it not been for Eve, woman would have never acted unfaithfully towards her husband.
Hammam b. Munabbih said: These are some of the ahadith which Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) narrated to us from Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and one of these (this one): Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Had it not been for Bani Isra'il, food would not have become stale, and meal would not have gone bad; and had it not been for Eve, a woman would never have acted unfaithfully toward her husband.
'Abdullah (b. Mas'ud) reported: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) having said: No person who is killed unjustly, but the share of (this offence of his also) falls upon the first son of Adam, for he was the first to introduce killing.
Anas reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: When Allah fashioned Adam in Paradise, He left him as He liked him to leave. Then Iblis roamed round him to see what actually that was and when he found him hollow from within, he recognised that he had been created with a disposition that he would not have control over himself.
This hadith has been transmitted on the authority of Abu Huraira and in the hadith transmitted on the authority of Ibn Hatim Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) is reported to have said: When any one of you fights with his brother, he should avoid his face for Allah created Adam in His own image.
This hadith has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira through another chain of transmitters that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The (members of the) first group which would get into Paradise will have their faces as bright as stars in the sky. They would neither pass water, nor void excrement, nor will they suffer from catarrh, nor will they spit, and their combs would be made of gold, and their sweat will be musk, the fuel of their brazier will be aloes, and their wives will be large-eyed maidens and their form would be alike as one single person after the form of their father (Adam) sixty cubits tall.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits, and as He created him He told him to greet that group, and that was a party of angels sitting there, and listen to the response that they give him, for it would form his greeting and that of his offspring. He then went away and said: Peace be upon you! They (the angels) said: May there be peace upon you and the Mercy of Allah, and they made an addition of" Mercy of Allah". So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam, his length being sixty cubits, then the people who followed him continued to diminish in size up to this day.
'A'isha reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: The Angels were born out of light and the Jinns were born out of the spark of fire and Adam was born as he has been defined (in the Qur'an) for you (i. e. he is fashioned out of clay).

Abu Dawud[edit]

Heavens and Earth[edit]

Narrated AbuBakrah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) gave a sermon during his hajj and said: Time has completed a cycle and assumed the form of the day when Allah created the heavens and the earth. The year contains twelve months of which four are sacred, three of them consecutive, viz. Dhul-Qa'dah, Dhul-Hijjah and Muharram and also Rajab of Mudar which comes between Jumadah and Sha'ban.

Adam and Eve[edit]

Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) said: The best day on which the sun has risen is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he was expelled (from Paradise), on it his contrition was accepted, on it he died, and on it the Last Hour will take place. On Friday every beast is on the lookout from dawn to sunrise in fear of the Last Hour, but not jinn and men, and it contains a time at which no Muslim prays and asks anything from Allah but He will give it to him. Ka'b said: That is one day every year...
Narrated Aws ibn Aws: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Among the most excellent of your days is Friday; on it Adam was created, on it he died, on it the last trumpet will be blown, and on it the shout will be made, so invoke more blessings on me that day, for your blessings will be submitted to me. The people asked: Apostle of Allah, how can it be that our blessings will be submitted to you while your body is decayed? He replied: Allah, the Exalted, has prohibited the earth from consuming the bodies of Prophets.
Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allah, Most High, has removed from you the pride of the pre-Islamic period and its boasting in ancestors. One is only a pious believer or a miserable sinner. You are sons of Adam, and Adam came from dust. Let the people cease to boast about their ancestors. They are merely fuel in Jahannam; or they will certainly be of less account with Allah than the beetle which rolls dung with its nose.

Al Tirmidhi[edit]

Adam and Eve[edit]

Narrated Muslim bin Yasar Al-Juhani: that 'Umar bin Al-Khattab was asked about this Ayah: And when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed and made them testify as to themselves: "Am I not your Lord?" They said: "Yes! We testify," lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection: 'Verily, we have been unaware of this (7:172).'" So 'Umar bin Al-Khattab said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah being asked about it. So the Messenger of Allah said: 'Indeed Allah created Adam, then He wiped his back with His Right Hand, and his offspring came out of him. So he said: "I created these for Paradise, and they will do the deeds of the people of Paradise." Then He wiped his back, and his offspring came out of him. So He said: "I created these for the Fire, and they will do the deeds of the people of the Fire." A man said: 'Then of what good is doing deeds O Messenger of Allah!' The Messenger of Allah said: 'Verily, when Allah created a man for Paradise, He makes him perform the deeds of the people of Paradise, until he dies doing one of the deeds of the people of Paradise. So Allah will admit him into Paradise. And when He created a man for the Fire, He makes him perform the deeds of the people of the Fire until he dies doing the deeds of the people of the Fire. So Allah will enter him into the Fire.'"
Narrated Abu Hurairah: that the Messenger of Allah said: "When Allah created Adam He wiped his back and every person that He created among his offspring until the Day of Resurrection fell out of his back. He placed a ray of light between the eyes of every person. Then He showed them to Adam and he said: 'O Lord! Who are these people?' He said: 'These are your offspring.' He saw one of them whose ray between his eyes amazed him, so he said: 'O Lord! Who is this?' He said: 'This is a man from the latter nations of your offspring called Dawud.' He said: 'Lord! How long did You make his lifespan?' He said: 'Sixty years.' He said: 'O Lord! Add forty years from my life to his.' So at the end of Adam's life, the Angel of death of came to him, and he said: 'Do I not have forty years remaining?' He said: 'Did you not give them to your son Dawud?'" He said: "Adam denied, so his offspring denied, and Adam forgot and his offspring forgot, and Adam sinned, so his offspring sinned."
Narrated Ibn 'Umar: that the Messenger of Allah gave a Khutbah to the people on the day of the conquest of Makkah, and he said: "O you people! Verily Allah has removed the slogans of Jahiliyyah from you, and its reverence of its forefathers. So, now there are two types of men: A man who is righteous, has Taqwa and honorable before Allah, and a wicked man, who is miserable and insignificant to Allah. People are children of Adam and Allah created Adam from the dust. Allah said: O you people! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is the one who has most Taqwa. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware (49:13)."
Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari: that the Messenger of Allah said: "Indeed Allah Most High created Adam from a handful that He took from all of the earth. So the children of Adam come in according with the earth, some of them come red, and white and black, and between that, and the thin, the thick, the filthy, and the clean."

Al Muwatta[edit]

Adam and Eve[edit]

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yazid ibn Abdullah ibn al-Had from Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Harith at-Taymi from Abu Salama ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf that Abu Hurayra said, "I went out to at-Tur (Mount Sinai) and met Kab al Ahbar and sat with him. He related to me things from the Tawrah and I related to him things from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Among the things I related to him was that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'The best of days on which the sun rises is the day of jumua. In it Adam was created, and in it he fell from the Garden. In it he was forgiven, and in it he died. In it the Hour occurs, and every moving thing listens from morning till sunset in apprehension of the Hour except jinn and men. In it is a time when Allah gives toa muslim slave standing in prayer whatever he asks for.' Kab said, 'That is one day in every year.' I said, 'No, in every jumua.' Then Kab recited the Tawrah and said, 'The Messenger of Allah has spoken the truth.' "

Miscellaneous[edit]

Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Satan comes to one of you and says, 'Who created so-and-so? 'till he says, 'Who has created your Lord?' So, when he inspires such a question, one should seek refuge with Allah and give up such thoughts."
Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah's Apostle saying, "While a shepherd was amongst his sheep, a wolf attacked them and took away one sheep. When the shepherd chased the wolf, the wolf turned towards him and said, 'Who will be its guard on the day of wild animals when nobody except I will be its shepherd. And while a man was driving a cow with a load on it, it turned towards him and spoke to him saying, 'I have not been created for this purpose, but for ploughing." The people said, "Glorified be Allah." The Prophet said, "But I believe in it and so does Abu Bakr end 'Umar."
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle said, "People will not stop asking questions till they say, 'This is Allah, the Creator of everything, then who created Allah?' "
It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him) observed: The Satan comes to everyone. of you and says: Who created this and that? till he questions: Who created your Lord? When he comes to that, one should seek refuge in Allah and keep away (from such idle thoughts).
Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said to me: they (the people) till constantly ask you, Abu Huraira, (about different things pertaining to religion) the they would say: Well, there is Allah, but after all who created Allah? He (Abu Huraira) narrated: Once we were in the mosque that some of the Bedouins came there and said: Well, there is Allah, but who created Allah? He (the narrator) said: I took hold of the pebbles in my fist and flung at them and remarked: Stand up, stand up (go away) my friend (the Holy Prophet) told the truth.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A person had been driving an ox loaded with luggage. The ox looked towards him and said: I have not been created for this but for lands (i. e. for ploughing the land and for drawing out water from the wells for the purpose of irrigating the lands). The people said with surprise and awe: Hallowed be Allah, does the ox speak? Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I believe it and so do Abu Bakr and 'Umar. Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: A shepherd was tendirig the flock when a wolf came there and took away one goat. Tile shepherd pursued it (the wolf) and rescued it (the goat) from that (wolf). The wolf looked towards him and said: Who would save it on the day when there will be no shepherd except me? Thereupon people said: Hallowed be Allah I Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: I believe in it and so do Abu Bakr and Umar believe.

Sirah[edit]

Al Tabari[edit]

Heavens and Earth[edit]

According to Ibn Humayd -Yahya b. Wadih -Yahya b. Ya'qub -Hammad -Sa'id b. Jubayr -Ibn 'Abbas: This world is one of the weeks of the other world-seven thousand years. Six thousand two hundred years have already passed. (The world) will surely experience hundreds of years, during which there will be no believer in the oneness of God there.

Others said that the total extent of time is six thousand years.

Those who said this

According to Abu Hisham -Mu'awiyah b. Hisham -Sufyan -al-A'mash -Abu Salih -Kab : This world is six thousand years.

According to Muhammad b. Sahl b. 'Askar -Ismail b. 'Abd al-Karim -'Abd al-Samad b. Ma'qil i -Wahb : Five thousand six hundred years of this world have elapsed. I do not know which kings and prophets lived in every period (zaman) of those years. I asked Wahb b. Munabbih: How long is (the total duration of) this world? He replied: Six thousand years.
All these facts taken together make it clear that of the two statements I have mentioned concerning the total extent of time, the one from Ibn 'Abbas, and the other from Kab, the one more likely to be correct in accordance with the information coming from the Messenger of God is that of Ibn 'Abbas transmitted here by us on his authority: The world is one of the weeks of the other world-seven thousand years.'

Consequently, because this is so and the report on the authority of the Messenger of God is sound-namely, that he reported that what remained of the time of this world during his life was half a day, or five hundred years, since five hundred years are half a day of the days, of which one is a thousand years-the conclusion is that the time of this world that had elapsed to the moment of the Prophet's statement corresponds to what we have transmitted on the authority of Abu Tha'labah al-Khushani from the Prophet, and is 6,500 years or approximately 6,500 years. God knows best!

Our statement about the duration of the periods (azman) of this world from its very beginning to its very end is the most firmly established of all the statements we have, on account of the testimony to its soundness as explained by us. Information has (also) been transmitted on the authority of the Messenger of God to prove the soundness of the statement that all of this world is six thousand years. If its chain of transmitters were sound, we would have to go no further. It is Muhammad b. Sinan al-Qazzaz'43 -'Abd al-Samad b. 'Abd al-Warithf -Zabban -'Asim' -Abu Salih-Abu Hurayrah: The Messenger of God said: AI-hugb is eighty years. The day of them is one-sixth of this world."" According to this tradition, it is clear that all of this world is six thousand years. That is because, if one day of the other world equals one thousand years and a single such day is one-sixth of this world, the conclusion would be that the total is six of the days of the other world, and that is six thousand years.
Now then, this being so, there is [also] a sound tradition from the Messenger of God told us by Hannad b. al-Sari, who also said that he read all of the hadith (to Abu Bakr)'" -Abu Bakr b. 'Ayyash-Abu Sad al-Baggal -'Ikrimah Ibn 'Abbas: The Jews came to the Prophet and asked him about the creation of the heavens and the earth. He said: God created the earth on Sunday and Monday. He created the mountains and the uses they possess on Tuesday. On Wednesday, He created trees, water, cities and the cultivated and barren land. These are four (days). He continued (citing the Qur'an): "Say: Do you really not believe in the One Who created the earth in two days, and set up others like Him? That is the Lord of the worlds. He made in it firmly anchored (mountains) above it and blessed it and decreed that it contain the amount of food it provides, (all) in four days, equally for those asking -for those who ask. He continued: On Thursday, He created heaven. On Friday, He created the stars, the sun, the moon, and the angels, until three hours remained. In the first of these three hours, He created the terms (of human life), who would live and who would die. In the second , He cast harm upon everything that is useful for mankind. And in the third, (He created) Adam and had him dwell in Paradise. He commanded Iblis to prostrate himself before Adam, and He drove Adam out of Paradise at the end of the hour.
According to al-Qasim b. Bishr b. Ma'ruf and al-Husayn b.

'Ali al-Suda'i -Hajjaj -Ibn Jurayj -Isma'il b. Umayyah-Ayyub b. Khalid -'Abdallah b. Rafi', the mawla of Umm Salamah -Abu Hurayrah: The Messenger of God took me by the hand. Then he said: God created the soil on Saturday. Upon it, He created the mountains on Sunday. He created the trees on Monday. He created evil on Tuesday. He created light on Wednesday. He scattered the animals on the earth on Thursday, and He created Adam as the last of His creatures after (the time of) the afternoon prayer in the last hour of Friday, in the time between the afternoon prayer and night(fall)."'

According to Muhammad b. 'Abdallah b. Bazi'-al-Fudayl b. Sulayman-Muhammad b. Zayd176 -Abu Salamah b. 'Abd al- Rahman b. 'Awf -Ibn Salam and Abu Hurayrah who mentioned the hour (of Adam's creation) on Friday on the authority of the Prophet as he stated it. 'Abdallih b. Salim said: I know which hour it is. God began the creation of the heavens and the earth on Sunday, and He finished in the last hour of Friday. Thus, it is the last hour of Friday (in which Adam was created).

According to al-Muthanna -al-Hajjaj-Hammid -'Ata' b. al-Sa'ib -'Ikrimah: The Jews asked the Prophet: What about Sunday? The Messenger of God replied: On it, God created the earth and spread it out. They asked about Monday, and he replied: On it, He created Adam. They asked about Tuesday, and he replied: On it, He created the mountains, water, and so on. They asked about Wednesday, and he replied: Food. They asked about Thursday, and he replied: He created the heavens. They asked about Friday, and he replied: God created night and day. Then, when they asked about Saturday and mentioned God's rest(ing on it), he exclaimed : God be praised! God then revealed: "We have created the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six days, and fatigue did not touch Us."

The two reports transmitted by us from the Messenger of God have made it clear that the sun and the moon were created after God had created many things of His creation. That is because the hadith of Ibn 'Abbas on the authority of the Messenger of God indicates that God created the sun and the moon on Friday. If this is so, earth and heaven and what is in them, except the angels and Adam, had been created before God created the sun and the moon. All this (thus) existed while there was no light and no day, since night and day are but nouns designating hours known through the traversal by the sun and the moon of the course of the sphere. Now, if it is correct that the earth and the heaven and what is between them, except what we have mentioned, were in existence when there was no sun and no moon, the conclusion is that all that existed when there was no night and no day. The same (conclusion results from) the following hadith of Abu Hurayrah reported on the authority of the Messenger of God: God created light on Wednesday-meaning by "light" the sun, if God wills.
Reports similar to the one that has come down on the Prophet's authority, namely, that God created the sun and the moon after His creation of the heavens and the earth and other things, have come down from a number of early (scholars), as follows:

According to Abu Hisham al-Rifa'i-Ibn Yaman -Sufyan- Ibn Jurayj-Sulayman b. Musa' -Mujahid-Ibn 'Abbas, commenting on: "And He said to (the heaven ) and the earth: Come willingly or unwillingly! They said: We come willingly," as follows: God said to the heavens: Cause My sun and My moon to rise and cause My stars to rise, and to the earth He said: Split your rivers and bring forth your fruit . Both replied: "We come willingly."

According to Bishr b. Mu'adh` -Yazid -Sa'id - Qatadah, commenting on: "And He revealed in every heaven its command": He created in it its sun, its moon , and its stars, and what is good for it.

These reports, mentioned by us on the authority of the Messenger of God and those who mentioned them on his authority, have made it clear that God created the heavens and the earth before He created time, day and night, and the sun and the moon. God knows best!

Adam and Eve[edit]

Iblis was driven out of Paradise when he was cursed, and Adam was settled in Paradise. Adam used to go about there all alone, not having a spouse to dwell with.`" He fell asleep, and when he woke up, he found sitting at his head a woman who had been created by God from his rib. He asked her what she was, and she replied: A woman. He asked for what purpose she had been created, and she replied: For you to dwell with me. The angels, looking (to find out) the extent of Adam's knowledge, asked him her name. He replied: Eve (Hawwa'). When the angels asked why she was called Eve, he replied: Because she was created from a living (hayy) thing. God said: "Adam, dwell you and your spouse in Paradise! Eat freely of its plenty wherever you wish!"
Then He took one of Adam's ribs from his left side and replaced it with flesh, while Adam was asleep and did not stir, until God had created his spouse Eve from that rib of his. He fashioned her to be a woman for him to dwell with. When slumber was lifted from him and he woke, he saw her at his side. It has been assumed-God knows best!-that Adam said: My flesh and blood and spouse, and he dwelled with her. When God gave him a spouse and made for him a comfort (sakan) from his own person, He said to him face to face': Adam, dwell you and your spouse in Paradise! Eat freely of its plenty wherever you wish, but do not go near this tree, or you will be wrongdoers."

According to Muhammad b. 'Amr-Abu 'Asim (al-Nabil)-Isa (b. Maymun)-Ibn Abi Najih-Mujahid, commenting on God's word: "And He created from him his spouse, as follows: Eve from Adam's lowest rib (qusayra'), while he was asleep. Then Adam woke up and said: Attd!, which is "woman" in Nabataean

We were told the same by al-Muthanna-Abu Hudhayfah -Shibl -Ibn Abi Najih-Mujahid. According to Bishr b. Mu'adh-Yazid b. Zuray'-Sa'id (b. Abi 'Arubah)-Qatadah, commenting on: "And He created from him his spouse": Meaning Eve who was created from one of Adam's ribs.
Eve took and ate of the (fruit offered to her). Then she went with it to Adam and said: Look at this tree! How sweet does it smell! How good does it taste! How beautiful is its color! Thus, Adam ate of it, and their secret parts became apparent to them. Adam went inside the tree (to hide). His Lord called out to him: Adam, where are you? Adam replied: I am here, my Lord. God said: Will you not come out? Adam replied: I feel shame before You, my Lord. God said: Cursed is the earth from which you were created, with a curse which will change its fruits to thorns. He continued. Neither in Paradise nor on earth was there a tree more excellent than the acacia (talk) and the lote-tree (sidr). Then God said: Eve, you are the one who inveigled My servant (Adam). Pregnancy will be difficult for you, and when you want to give birth to what is in your womb, you will often be in mortal danger. To the snake He said: You are the one who let the accursed Iblis enter your belly, so that he was able to inveigle My servant. You are cursed with a curse that will have the effect that your feet will be retracted into your belly, and only the soil will be your sustenance. You will be the enemy of the children of Adam, and they will be your enemies. Wherever you encounter one of them, you will hold on to his heel, and wherever he encounters you, he will crush your head. Wahb was asked: And what did the angels use to eat? He replied: God does whatever He wants.
God forbade Adam and Eve to eat from one tree in Paradise, but (otherwise) they could freely eat of its plenty wherever they wished. Satan came and entered inside the snake. He spoke to Eve and whispered to Adam. He said: "Your Lord has only forbidden you this tree, lest you become angels or live eternally. And (Iblis) assured them with an oath: I am one of those who give you good advice.""' He continued. Eve cut the tree, and it bled. The feathers that covered Adam and Eve dropped off, "and they started to cover themselves with leaves of Paradise stitched together. Their Lord called out to them: Did I not forbid you this tree, and did I not tell you that Satan is for you a clear enemy? " Why did you eat of it, when I have forbidden it to you? Adam said: My Lord, Eve made me eat of it. When God asked Eve: Why did you make him eat of it? she replied: The snake commanded me to do it. So God asked the snake: Why did you command Eve to do it? and the snake replied: Iblis commanded me to do it. God said: Cursed and banished (is Iblis).691 Now, you, Eve, as you caused the tree to bleed, you will bleed every new moon, and you, snake, I shall cut off your feet and you will walk slithering on your face. Whoever encounters you, will crush your head with stones. "Fall down being one another's enemy!"
Satan whispered to Eve about the tree and succeeded in taking her to it; then he made it seem good to Adam. He continued. When Adam felt a need for her and called her, she said: No! unless you go there. When he went, she said again: No! unless you eat from this tree. He continued. They both ate from it, and their secret parts became apparent to them. He continued. Adam then went about in Paradise in flight. His Lord called out to him: Adam, is it from Me that you are fleeing? Adam replied: No, my Lord, but I feel shame before You. When God asked what had caused his trouble, he replied: Eve, my Lord. Whereupon God said: Now it is My obligation to make her bleed once every month, as she made this tree bleed. I also must make her stupid, although I created her intelligent (halimah), and must make her suffer pregnancy and birth with difficulty, although I made it easy for her to be pregnant and give birth. Ibn Zayd continued: Were it not for the affliction that affected Eve, the women of this world would not menstruate, and they would be intelligent and, when pregnant, give birth easily.

According to Ibn Humayd-Salamah-Muhammad b. Ishaq- Yazid b. 'Abdallah b. Qusayt -Sa'id b. al-Musayyab: I heard him swear by God unequivocally: As long as Adam was in his right mind, he did not eat from the tree. Eve, however, gave him wine to drink, and when he was drunk, she led him to the tree, and he ate from it.

When Adam and Eve committed the sin (of eating from the forbidden tree), God drove them out of Paradise and deprived them of the luxury and generous plenty they had enjoyed. He threw them, their enemy Iblis, and the snake down to earth. The Lord said to them: "Fall down being one another's enemy!,

What we have stated about the subject was also stated by the early Muslim scholars

Ibn Sa’d[edit]

Adam and Eve[edit]

He (Ibn Sa'd) said: Hajjáj Ibn Muhammad informed us on the authority of Ibn Jurays, he on the authority of Mujàhid respecting Allah's words ("and from it created its mate") (AI-Qur'an, 4:1); He said: He (Allah) created Eve out of Adam's short rib, while he was asleep. Then he awoke and repeated Iththa, which signifies woman in Nabataean language.
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 1, pt. 1:4:1
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Abd Allah al-Asadi informed us: Sufyàn Ibn Sa'id al-Thawri informed us on the authority of his father, he on the authority of a mawlá of Ibn `Abbas, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; he said: She was named Eve because she was the mother of all human beings.
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 1, pt. 1:4:2
He (lbn Sa`d) said: Hishám Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Sa'ib al-Kalbi informed us on the authority of his father, he on the authority of Abu Salih, he on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas; he said: Adam was cast down in India and Eve at Juddah. Then he came in her search and reached Jam'a; then Eve joined him, and so the place was known as al-Muzdalifah, and they had come together at Jam'a so it was known as Jam'a.
Ibn Sa’d, Vol. 1, pt. 1:4:3

Scholars[edit]

Heavens and Earth[edit]

Al Zamakhshari[edit]

Then He lifted Himself to heaven when it was smoke ... (Sura 41:11): The meaning is: Then, after he created the earth and what was on it, his wisdom led him to the creation of heaven without there being anything that could have dissuaded him from it. Some say that God’s Throne (‘arshuhu) was on the water before the creation of heaven and earth, and that God then caused a (pillar of) smoke to rise up out of the water, which arose over the water and remained (suspended) over it. Then God caused the water to dry up and made from it (the various) regions of the earth (aradun); and finally God created heaven out of the smoke which had risen up ...

One may now ask: Why does God mention the earth together with heaven and place them together in the command to come into being? Was the earth not already created in two days before heaven (was created)? To this I answer: God had created the material earth only after the creation of heaven, for God says: ‘And after that (that is, after the creation of heaven) He spread out the earth’ (Sura 79:30). Thus the meaning is: ‘Come forth in the form and condition in which you are to be made. Earth, come forth spread out as the resting-place and dwelling-place for your inhabitants! Heaven, come forth arched as a roof for her!’ By coming forth is meant that something originates and appears, as when one says: ‘His work had come forth in a satisfactory and welcome manner.’
Helmut Gätje, The Qur'an and its Exegesis, Oneworld Publications, 1996, pp. 150-151

Al Jalalayn[edit]

He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth, that is, the earth and all that is in it, so that you may benefit from and learn lessons from it; then, after creating the earth, He turned to, that is, He made His object, heaven and levelled them (fa-sawwāhunna: the pronoun [-hunna] refers to ‘heaven’, since, it [heaven] is implicit in the import of the sentence attributed to it [the pronoun]), that is to say, He made them thus, as [He says] in another verse, [fa-qadāhunna] so He determined them [Q. 41:12]) seven heavens and He has knowledge of all things, in their totality and in their individual detail, so do you not then think that the One who has the power to create this to begin with, which is much greater than what you are, also has the power to bring you back [after death]?
Surah 2 Ayah 29
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
Say: ‘Do you [really] (read a-innakum, pronouncing both hamzas, or by not pronouncing the second one but inserting an alif between the two in both cases) disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two days, Sunday and Monday, and ascribe to Him associates? That is the Lord, in other words, the Possesser, of [all] the Worlds (al-‘ālamīn, the plural of ‘ālam, which denotes everything apart from God. On account of the variety [of beings] that it subsumes, it has been expressed in the plural form ending with –īn, as a way of giving prevalence [in the address] to rational beings).
Surah 41 Ayah 9
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
And He set (wa-ja‘ala, the beginning of a new [independent] sentence and cannot be a supplement to [the preceding] relative clause containing alladhī, ‘Who’, because of the intervening clause that is [syntactically] unrelated) therein firm mountains [rising] above it, and blessed it, with an abundance of water, crops and stock, and ordained, divided, therein its [various means of] sustenance, for human beings and beasts, in four, complete, days — in other words, the ‘setting therein [of mountains]’ together with what has been mentioned in addition [all] took place on Tuesday and Wednesday — evenly (sawā’an, in the accusative because it is a verbal noun) in other words, the four days were exactly four, neither less nor more, for [all] enquirers, about the creation of the earth and all that is in it.
Surah 41 Ayah 10
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
Then He turned to the heaven when it was smoke, [consisting of] rising vapours, and He said to it and to the earth, “Come both of you, to what I desire from you, willingly, or unwillingly!” (taw‘an aw karhan, their [syntactical] locus is that of a circumstantial qualifier, in other words, ‘[Come] being obedient or coerced’). They said, “We come, together with all those inhabiting us, willingly!” (tā’i‘īna mainly indicates masculine rational beings; it may also be that they are referred to in this way because they are being addressed thus).
Surah 41 Ayah 11
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
Then He ordained them (the [suffixed] pronoun refers back to al-samā’, ‘the heaven’, because it [al-samā’] actually denotes that plural [sense] to which it will lead [in the following clause), in other words, He made them to be, seven heavens in two days — Thursday and Friday. He completed them in the last hour thereof, in which He created Adam — which is why He does not say sawā’an, ‘evenly’ here [as He did earlier]; what is said here concords with those verse in which it is stated that the heavens and the earth were created in six days; and in each heaven He revealed its commandment’, that to which He commanded those in it [to follow], in the way of obedience and worship. And We adorned the lowest heaven with lamps, with stars, and [this was also] to guard them (hifzan is in the accusative because of its implicit verbal sense, in other words, ‘We guarded it against the devils lest they try to listen therein [to the angels] by stealth with meteors’). That is the ordaining of the Mighty, in His kingdom, the Knower, of His creatures.
Surah 41 Ayah 12
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought

Ibn Kathir[edit]

This Ayah (2:29) is explained in detail in Surat As-Sajdah where Allah said;

(Say (O Muhammad ): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him That is the Lord of all that exists. He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it, and measured therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four Days equal (i.e. all these four `days' were equal in the length of time) for all those who ask (about its creation). Then He Istawa ila the heaven when it was smoke, and said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly." Then He finished them (as) seven heavens in two Days and He made in each heaven its affair. And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as to guard (from the devils by using them as missiles against the devils). Such is the decree of the Almighty, the Knower) (41:9-12).

These Ayat indicate that Allah started creation by creating earth, then He made heaven into seven heavens. This is how building usually starts, with the lower floors first and then the top floors, as the scholars of Tafsir reiterated, as we will come to know, Allah willing. Allah also said,

(Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed He raised its height, and has perfected it. Its night He covers with darkness and its forenoon He brings out (with light). And the earth, after that, He spread it out. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly. (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle) (79:27-33).

It is said that "Then" in the Ayah (2:29) relates only to the order of reciting the information being given, it does not relate to the order that the events being mentioned took place, this was reported from Ibn `Abbas by `Ali bin Abi Talhah.
Mujahid commented on Allah's statement,

(He it is Who created for you all that is on earth) "Allah created the earth before heaven, and when He created the earth, smoke burst out of it. This is why Allah said,

(Then He Istawa ila (turned towards) the heaven when it was smoke.) (41:11)

(And made them seven heavens) means, one above the other, while the `seven earths' means, one below the other.

This Ayah testifies to the fact that the earth was created before heaven, as Allah has indicated in the Ayat in Surat As-Sajdah.
Sahih Al-Bukhari records that when Ibn `Abbas was question about this matter, he said that the earth was created before heaven, and the earth was spread out only after the creation of the heaven. Several Tafsir scholars of old and recent times also said similarly, as we have elaborated on in the Tafsir of Surat An-Nazi`at (chapter 79). The result of that discussion is that the word Daha (translated above as "spread") is mentioned and explained in Allah's statement,

(And the earth, after that, He spread it out. And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly.) (79:30-32)

Therefore, Daha means that the earth's treasures were brought to its surface after finishing the job of creating whatever will reside on earth and heaven. When the earth became Daha, the water burst out to its surface and the various types, colors, shapes and kinds of plants grew. The stars started rotating along with the planets that rotate around them. And Allah knows best.
Friday is called Al-Jumu`ah because it is derived from Al-Jam`, literally, gathering. The people of Islam gather weekly, on every Friday in the major places of worship. It was during Friday when Allah finished the creation, the sixth day, during which Allah created the heavens and earth. During Friday, Allah created Adam, and he was placed in Paradise, and ironically, it was a Friday when he was taken out of Paradise. It will be on a Friday when the Last Hour will commence. There is an hour during Friday, wherein no faithful servant asks Allah for something good, but Allah will give him what he asked for. All of this is based upon Hadiths in the authentic collections.

In the ancient language Friday was called, `Arubah. It is a fact that previous nations were informed about Friday, but they were led astray from it. The Jews chose Saturday for their holy day, but Adam was not created on Saturday. The Christians chose Sunday, which is the day the creation was initiated. Allah chose Friday for this Ummah, because it is the day the creation was finished.

Al Munajjid[edit]

So the earth was created in two days, and the mountains were created and the sustenance measured in two more days which makes a total of four, i.e., this took the other two days. Then the creation of the seven heavens took two days. So the total is six days of the Days of Allaah, may He be glorified and exalted.
Question:

Imaam, can you please tell me if it is impermissible to believe that there were dinosaurs on the earth before Adaam and Eve were created?

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

Allaah created Adam (peace be upon him) on a Friday, the sixth day from the beginning of creation. Some texts mention what was created on the previous five days, in brief and general terms, but as to the details of what was created, Allaah knows best about that. Questions like this, on which no belief or deeds are to be based, are just meaningless distractions that are of no benefit. Faith does not increase or decrease according to whether one believes in dinosaurs or not. It was reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade us to occupy ourselves with things that cause confusion and are not clear. We also know that people differ in their views as to whether these dinosaurs existed or they are just figments of the imagination.

And Allaah knows best.
Believing that dinosaurs existed
Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 3668

Adam and Eve[edit]

Al Ghazali[edit]

When Eve ate fruit which He had forbidden to her from the tree in Paradise, the Lord, be He praised, punished women with eighteen things: (1) menstruation; (2) childbirth; (3) separation from mother and father and marriage to a stranger; (4) pregnancy; (5) not having control over her own person; (6) a lesser share in inheritance; (7) her liability to be divorced and inability to divorce; (8) its being lawful for men to have four wives, but for a woman to have only one husband; (9) the fact that she must stay secluded in the house; (10) the fact that she must keep her head covered inside the house; (11) the fact that two women’s testimony has to be set against the testimony of one man; (12) the fact that she must not go out of the house unless accompanied by a near relative; (13) the fact that men take part in Friday and feast prayers and funerals, while women do not; (14) disqualification for rulership and judgeship; (15) the fact that merit has one thousand components, only one which is attributable to women, while 999 are attributable to men….
Book of Counsel for Kings (Nasihat Al-Muluk)

Al Jalalayn[edit]

Truly, the likeness of Jesus, his remarkable case, in God’s sight, is as Adam’s likeness, as the case of Adam, whom God created without father or mother: this is a comparison of one remarkable thing with another more remarkable, so that it convinces the disputer and establishes itself in one’s mind more effectively. He created him, Adam, that is, his form, of dust, then said He to him, ‘Be,’, a human being, and he was; similarly, He said to Jesus, ‘Be’ — without a father — and he was.
Surah 3 Ayah 59
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought
O people, of Mecca, fear your Lord, that is, His punishment by being obedient to Him, Who created you of a single soul, Adam, and from it created its mate, Eve (Hawwā’), from one of his left ribs, and from the pair of them, Adam and Eve, scattered, separated and spread, many men and, many, women; and fear God by whom you claim [your rights] from one another (tassā’alūna: the original tā’ [of tatasā’alūna] has been assimilated with the sīn; a variant reading has tasā’alūna), so that one of you says to the other, ‘I ask you, by God…’, or ‘For God’s sake…’; and, fear, kinship ties, lest you sever them (a variant reading [of wa’l-arhāma, ‘and kinship ties’] is wa’l-arhāmi, as a supplement to the pronoun contained in bihi [sc. God]). They used to implore one another by ties of kinship. Surely God has been watchful over you, heedful of your deeds, for which He will requite you, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.
Surah 4 Ayah 1
Tafsir al-Jalalayn, trans. Feras Hamza, Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought

Ibn Kathir[edit]

Allah said,

(Verily, the likeness of `Isa before Allah) regarding Allah's ability, since He created him without a father,

(is the likeness of Adam), for Allah created Adam without a father or a mother. Rather,

(He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: "Be! and he was.)

Therefore, He Who created Adam without a father or a mother is able to create `Isa, as well, without a father. If the claim is made that `Isa is Allah's son because he was created without a father, then the same claim befits Adam even more. However, since such a claim regarding Adam is obviously false, then making the same claim about `Isa is even more false.

Furthermore, by mentioning these facts, Allah emphasizes His ability, by creating Adam without a male or female, Hawa' from a male without a female, and `Isa from a mother without a father, compared to His creating the rest of creation from male and female.
Allah commands His creatures to have Taqwa of Him by worshipping Him Alone without partners. He also reminds to them of His ability, in that He created them all from a single person, Adam, peace be unto him.

(And from him He created his wife) Hawwa' (Eve), who was created from Adam's left rib, from his back while he was sleeping. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa', he liked her and had affection for her, and she felt the same toward him. An authentic Hadith states,

(Woman was created from a rib. Verily, the most curved portion of the rib is its upper part, so, if you should try to straighten it, you will break it, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked.) Allah's statement,

(And from them both He created many men and women;) means, Allah created from Adam and Hawwa' many men and women and distributed them throughout the world in various shapes, characteristics, colors and languages. In the end, their gathering and return will be to Allah. Allah then said,

Al Munajjid[edit]

Question:

There are people who say that long ago man was a monkey and he evolved. Is this true? Is there any evidence?.

Answer:

Praise be to Allaah.

This view is not correct, and the evidence for that is that Allaah has described in the Qur’aan the stages of the creation of Adam. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, the likeness of ‘Eesa (Jesus) before Allaah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!’ — and he was”

[Aal ‘Imraan 3:59]

This dust was moistened until it became sticky mud or clay that stuck to the hands. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth)”

[al-Mu’minoon 23:12]

“Verily, We created them of a sticky clay”

[al-Saaffaat 37:12]

Then it became dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And indeed, We created man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud”

[al-Hijr 15:26]

Then when it dried it became sounding clay like the clay of pottery. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery”

[al-Rahmaan 55:14]

Then Allaah moulded it into the form that He wanted and breathed into him (his) soul created by Him. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“(Remember) when your Lord said to the angels: ‘Truly, I am going to create man from clay’.

So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him”

[Saad 38:71-72]

These are the stages through which the creation of Adam passed according to the Qur’aan. As for the stages of creation which the progeny of Adam pass through, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth).

Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in a safe lodging (womb of the woman).

Then We made the Nutfah into a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood), then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So Blessed is Allaah, the Best of creators”

[al-Mu’minoon 23:12-14]

With regard to the wife of Adam – Hawwa’ (Eve) – Allaah tells us that He created her from him, as He says (interpretation of the meaning):

“O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women”

[al-Nisa’ 4:1]

From Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah, 1/31.
Falseness of the theory of evolution
Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 34508
Allaah created Adam with His hand and breathed into him his soul created by Him, and told His angels to prostrate to him.

Allaah created Adam from dust, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 3:59]

When Allaah had completed the creation of Adam, He commanded the angels to prostrate to him, so they prostrated, except for Iblees, who was present but he refused and was too arrogant to prostrate to Adam: [Quotes Qur'an 38:71-74]

Then Allaah told the angels that He was going to place Adam on earth and make generations after generations of his offspring, as He said (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 2:30]

Allaah taught Adam all the names: [Quotes Qur'an 2:31]

When Iblees refused to prostrate to Adam, Allaah expelled him and cursed him: [Quotes Qur'an 38:77-78]

When Iblees knew of his fate, he asked Allaah to give him respite until the Day of Resurrection: [Quotes Qur'an 38:79]

When Allaah granted him that, he declared war on Adam and his descendents, made disobedience attractive to them and tempted them to commit immoral actions: [Quotes Qur'an 38:82]

Allaah created Adam, and from him He created his wife, and from their progeny He created men and women, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 4:1]

Then Allaah caused Adam and his wife to dwell in Paradise, as a test for them. He commanded them to eat of the fruits of Paradise but He forbade them to eat from one tree: [Quotes Qur'an 2:35]

Allaah warned Adam and his wife against the Shaytaan, as He said (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 20:117]

Then the Shaytaan whispered to Adam and his wife, and tempted them to eat from the forbidden tree. Adam forgot and could not resist the temptation, so he disobeyed his Lord and ate from that tree: [Quotes Qur'an 20:120-121]

Their Lord called to them and said (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 7:22]

When they ate from the tree, they regretted what they had done, and said: [Quotes Qur'an 7:23]

The sin of Adam stemmed from desire, not from arrogance, hence Allaah guided him to repent and He accepted that from him: [Quotes Qur'an 2:37]

This is the way for Adam and his descendents: whoever sins then repents sincerely, Allaah will accept his repentance: [Quotes Qur'an 42:25]

Then Allaah sent Adam and his wife, and Iblees, down to the earth, and He sent down Revelation to them and He sent the Messengers to them. So whoever believes will enter Paradise and whoever disbelieves will enter Hell: [Quotes Qur'an 2:38-39]

When Allaah sent them all down to the earth, the conflict between faith and kufr, between truth and falsehood, between good and evil, began, and it will continue until Allaah inherits the earth and everyone on it: [Quotes Qur'an 7:24]

Allaah is Able to do all things. He created Adam with no father or mother, and He created Hawwa [Eve] from a father with no mother, and He created ‘Eesa from a mother with no father, and He created us from a father and a mother.

Allaah created Adam from dust, then He made his descendents from semen of despised water, as He says (interpretation of the meaning): [Quotes Qur'an 32:7-9]
The creation of man
Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 13286
Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

It was narrated concerning them, as quoted by more than one of the earlier and later scholars, that Allah prescribed that Adam (peace be upon him) should marry his daughters to his sons as a matter of necessity. But they said: A male and female were born from each pregnancy, so he would marry the female from one pregnancy to the male from another. The sister of Habeel was ugly and the sister of Qabeel was beautiful. Qabeel wanted to keep her for himself and not give her to his brother, but Adam insisted that they should offer sacrifices and whichever brother’s sacrifice was accepted by Allah would win her hand. So they offered sacrifices and it was accepted from Habeel but it was not accepted from Qabeel. And their story was told by Allah in His Book. End quote.

Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/82

Ibn Abi Haatim narrated: It was forbidden for a woman to marry her twin brother, and he was commanded to give her in marriage to a brother from another pregnancy. And from each pregnancy one boy and one girl were born. Whilst they were like that, a beautiful girl was born to him, and another was born who was ugly. The twin brother of the ugly one said to his brother: Give me your twin sister in marriage and I will give you my twon sister in marriage. He said: I have more right to my twin sister. So they offered sacrifices, and the sacrifice of the one who offered a ram was accepted but the sacrifice of the one who offered crops was not accepted, so he killed him. Ibn Katheer (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Its isnaad is jayyid.

Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 3/83

See also: Tafseer Ibn Jeeri, 10/206; Tafseer al-Baghawi, 3/41; Tafseer al-Tha‘labi, p. 732; al-Jaami‘ li Ahkaam al-Qur’aan, 6/134; Zaad al-Maseer, 2/332; al-Bidaayah wa’l-Nihaayah, 1/103

As this is proven from the Sahaabah (may Allah be pleased with them) or some of them, especially from Ibn ‘Abbaas who was the most knowledgeable of people in the interpretation of the Qur’aan, and the scholars narrated what he mentioned, this is not regarded as speculation that it is not permissible to accept.

Rather, in the words quoted above, Ibn Katheer indicated that this is a definitive matter, as he said: Allah prescribed that Adam (peace be upon him) should marry his daughters to his sons as a matter of necessity. End quote.

The words “as a matter of necessity” indicate that it is not possible that things could have happened differently, otherwise how could all of mankind have come about? How could they have reproduced? There is no way that could have happened except by the sons of Adam marrying his daughters.

Al-Fawzan[edit]

The Prophet Muhammad said about women: "I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you," and so on. This hadith and others like it were misunderstood by the ignorant. Corrupt people interpreted it in a way that differs from its original intent. Because of their ignorance, their insolence, their stupidity, and because of their enmity towards Islam and Muslims, they turned this hadith into evidence that Islam disgraces women, diminishing her value, and describes her in inadequate terms.
. . .

These hadiths provide some of the most decisive evidence that Islam protects women and guarantees their rights. Islam has surrounded the woman with a fence of compassion and mercy. It has shown that the twisted nature of women stems from their very creation. This is how Allah wanted woman to be. Therefore, the husband must adapt himself to her and be patient with her. He should not giver her too many things to do, or things that she is incapable of doing. He should not make her do anything that is contrary to her nature, and to the way she was created by Allah. In addition, he should turn a blind eye to her mistakes, he should tolerate her slips and errors, and put up with all the silly ignorant things she might say, because this constitutes part of the nature of her creation. In addition, women have surging emotions, which in some cases, might overpower their minds. The weakness with which women were created is the secret behind their attractiveness and appeal to their husbands. It is the source of women's seduction of men, and one of the elements strengthening the bond between husband and wife. This is one of the wondrous miracles of Allah: The strength of a woman lies in her weakness. Her power of seduction and appeal lie in her emotions, which might overpower her mind at times.
. . .

Both husband and wife should satisfy their spouse's natural urges, and should try to gratify their desires, as long as nothing prevents this. This is why the Prophet said: "When a man calls his wife to fulfill his needs, she must go to him, even if she is busy with the oven." Imagine this: There is fire in the oven, and she wants to bake bread. But even if she's busy with this work that cannot be neglected, when he calls her, she must leave the oven and go to her husband. Another hadith says: "She must go to him, even if she is on the back of a camel." She must go to him, even if she is riding.

Islamweb[edit]

Allaah mentioned that He created a woman from a man, as He Says (which means): {O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate.}[Quran 4:1]. The Prophet also clarified this as he said: "Treat women kindly. The woman has been created from a rib…" Moreover, some interpreters of the Quran reported that Ibn Abbaas narrated that Hawa' [the wife of Aadam] is created from Aadam's left rib. This is what is meant, that Allaah created Hawa' from Aadam.
Were woman created from a rib?
Islamweb, Fatwa No. 90673, October 19, 2005

See Also[edit]

  • Creation - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Creation

External Links[edit]