Accidents and Natural Disasters in the Muslim World

From WikiIslam, the online resource on Islam
Jump to: navigation, search
The 2005 earthquake centered in Pakistan administered Kashmir left 100,000 dead.

This article discusses and lists major accidents and natural disasters which have occurred in the Muslim world.

Introduction[edit]

As Allah's people, Muslims believe they will always be protected by him against any accident or disaster. However accidents and natural disasters do happen in Muslim countries and Allah seems to turn a blind eye when disaster strikes, even when they occur during the Hajj in Mecca, where Islam's holiest site, the Ka'aba, is located. Here we will list many significant events where a lot of Muslims have died due to natural disasters and accidents. This shows that there is little use in praying to Allah for the success and safety of Muslims.

Lists[edit]

Accidents and Natural Disasters at The Hajj[edit]

The Hajj is an important religious duty that every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to must partake in at least once in their lifetime. It is one of the Five Pillars of Islam and, as such, is meant to demonstrate the solidarity between the disparate Muslim people, and their submission to Allah. The Ka'aba itself is believed to be the "House of Allah" and the Qur'an tells us it's an "asylum of security for men",[1] so it would seem reasonable for Allah to protect or prevent any catastrophes from occurring in his house during the Hajj. However, this is not the case.

Death Toll Event Year
200 Fire in a Tent Colony[2] 1975
1,426 Stampede inside Al-Ma'asim Tunnel (most deadly stampede in history, until 2015)[3] 1990
250 Stampede at the Stoning of the Devil Ritual (unofficial figures say "well over" 1,000 deaths) [4] 1994
343 Tent Fire in Mina[2] 1997
118 Incident on Jamarat Bridge[5] 1998
35 Stampede at the Stoning of the Devil ritual[6] 2001
14 Stampede at the Hajj[7] 2003
251 Stampede during the Stoning ritual in Mina[8] 2004
346 Stampede during the ritual Al-Jamarat on the last day of the Hajj[8] 2006
76 Al Ghaza Hotel Collapse[9] 2006
77 Saudi floods[10] 2009
5 Swine Flu deaths at Hajj[11] 2009
118 Mecca (Masjid Al-Haram) crane collapse 2015
2400+ Hajj stampede 2015


A Stampede occurs when a large crowd panics, knocking people to the ground. They seem to be a regular part of the Hajj, and in all cases people are injured and trampled to death. Millions of pilgrims attend the Hajj every year and the attendance keeps on growing as more options for travel become available. It is a challenge for the government of Saudi Arabia to house these pilgrims and security to maintain the crowds remains inadequate.

In previous years violence has erupted during the Hajj, such as the 1979 Grand Mosque seizure (382 dead),[12] the 1982 bombing, and 1987 Mecca Massacre (402 dead).[13]

Not only is the Hajj subject to chaos, stampedes, etc., it is also subject to the spread of diseases such as meningitis, Swine Flu, and other transmittable diseases as millions of pilgrims are kept together in cramped and squalid conditions. Following an outbreak of meningitis amongst the pilgrims in 1987, the government of Saudi Arabia made vaccinations against the disease mandatory for all pilgrims.

Deadliest Earthquakes in the Past 50 Years[edit]

Following the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, some Muslims claimed this tragedy befell the Japanese because "Denying the Lordship of Allah and refusing to submit to Him in worship is the biggest act of injustice".[14]

This belief stems from the fact that the Qur'an often states earthquakes are for non-Muslims and occur as the wrath of an angry God.[15][16] However, out of the 10 most deadly earthquakes in the last 50 years,[17][18] 6 of the 8 countries affected were populated by a Muslim majority:

Death Toll (Estimate) Event Location Date
300,000 Tangshan earthquake China 01976-Template:MONTH July 1976
280,000 Indonesian Tsunami Indonesia 02004-Template:MONTH December 2004
110,000 Ashgabat earthquake Turkmenistan 01948-Template:MONTH October 1948
79,000 Kashmir earthquake Pakistan 02005-Template:MONTH October 2005
74,000 Ancash earthquake Peru 01970-Template:MONTH May 1970
68,000 Sichuan earthquake China 02008 2008
50,000 Manjil-Rudbar earthquake Iran 01990-Template:MONTH June 1990
45,000 İzmit earthquake Turkey 01999-Template:MONTH August 1999
28,000 Khait earthquake Tajikistan 01949-Template:MONTH July 1949
26,000 Bam earthquake Iran 02003-Template:MONTH December 2003

Accidents and Natural Disasters in the Muslim world[edit]

Many Muslims often gloat and celebrate[19][20] when an accident or natural disaster befalls the Western and/or non-Muslim world, believing (as mentioned above) that it is the actions of a vengeful Allah. For example, following the 2005 Atlantic hurricane which struck the United States, the high-ranking Kuwaiti official, Muhammad Yousef Al-Mlaifi, referred to Hurricane Katrina as a "wondrous storm", a "Wind of Torment and Evil from Allah", and a "Soldier of Allah".[21]

When these beliefs are so strong among Muslims, surely this almighty God would not turn on his own followers? (note that this is by no means a complete list and only lists the reported figures of the dead, not those who are missing and presumed dead)

Death Toll Event Year
200,000 Damaghan earthquake, Iran[22][23] 856
150,000 Ardabil earthquake, Iran[23] 893
150,000 Shahbandar Sindh earthquake, Pakistan[24][25] 893-894
500,000 Famine, Egypt[26][27] 968
500,000 Famine, Palestine[27] 1097
230,000 (Disputed) Aleppo Earthquake, Syria[28] 1138
100,000 Famine, Egypt[29] 1199-1202
10,000 Earthquake, Turkey[30] 1509
10,000 Eruption of Mount Kelut, Indonesia[31] 1586
80,000 Shamakhi earthquake, Azerbaijan[32] 1667
50,000 Shahbandar Sindh earthquake, Pakistan[33] 1668
77,000 Tabriz earthquake, Iran[34] 1727
40,000 Kashan earthquake, Iran[35] 1755
1/5 of population Famine, Tunisia[27] 1784-1785
200,000 Famine, Egypt[36] 1784
300 Earthquake in Sumatra, Indonesia[37] 1797
Tens of Thousands Tambora eruption and famine, Indonesia[38] 1815
3,200 Allahbund Sindh earthquake, Pakistan[24] 1819
1,000 Lahore Punjab earthquake, Pakistan[25] 1827
31,000 Cholera, Egypt [39] 1831
Numerous Sumatra earthquake, Indonesia[37] 1833
250 - 350 Kahan (Balochistan) earthquake, Pakistan[25] 1852
Several thousand Sumatra earthquake, Indonesia[40] 1861
2,129 Cholera, Egypt[41] 1865
1,500,000 Famine, Iran 1870-71[42]
36,000 Eruption of Krakatoa, Indonesia[43] 1883
34,595 Cholera, Egypt[44] 1902
100 Sibi Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan[24] 1909
6,000 Silakhor earthquake, Iran[45] 1909
1/4 of northern population Famine, Persia[46] 1918-1919
1,500 Bali earthquake, Indonesia[47] 1917
5,115 Eruption of Mount Kelut, Indonesia[48] 1919
2,200 Torbat-e Heydariyeh earthquake, Iran[49] 1923
3,800 Koppeh Dagh earthquake, Iran[50] 1929
2,500 Salmas earthquake, Iran[51] 1930
30,000 - 60,0000 Ali Jaan, Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan[52] 1935
32,962 Erzincan earthquake, Turkey[53] 1939
4,000 Balochistan earthquake, Pakistan[54] 1945
20,472 Cholera, Egypt[55][56] 1947
110,000 Ashgabat earthquake, Turkemenistan[57] 1948
18,000 Khait earthquake, Tajikistan[58] 1949
970 Torud earthquake, Iran[59] 1953
1,600 Earthquake, Algeria[60] 1954
1,200 Mazandaran earthquake, Iran[61] 1957
1,130 Sahneh Earthquake, Iran[61] 1957
15,000 Agadir earthquake, Morocco[62] 1960
12,225 Bou'in-Zahra earthquake, Iran[63] 1962
500 Narail-Magura Tornadoes, Bangladesh[64] 1964
7,000 Dasht-e-Bayaz earthquake, Iran[65] 1968
923 Tornado, East Pakistan[66] 1969
500,000 Bhola Cyclone, East Pakistan (now in Bangladesh)[67] 1970
5,054 Earthquake, Southern Iran[68] 1972
4,000 Blizzard, Iran[69] 1972
5,300 Hunza Earthquake, Pakistan[70] 1974
26,000 - 1,000,000+ Famine, Bangladesh[71][72] 1974
5,000 Papua earthquake, Indonesia[73] 1976
26,000 Tabas Earthquake, Iran[74] 1978
1,500 Earthquake, Southern Iran[45] 1981
1,300 Saturia-Manikganj sadar Tornado, Bangladesh[75] 1989
40,000 Manjil(Rudbar) earthquake, Iran[76] 1990
138,866 Cylcone, Bangladesh[77] 1991
240,000 - 280,000 Famine, Somalia[78] 1991
2,500 Flores earthquake, Indonesia[79] 1992
440 Tangail Tornado, Bangladesh[80] 1996
1,567 Birjand-Qaen earthquake, Iran[81] 1997
1,100 Ardabil earthquake, Iran[82][83] 1997
17,118 - 45,000 Izmit earthquake, Turkey[84][85] 1999
103 Southern Sumatra earthquake, Indonesia[86] 2000
400 Cholera, Nigeria[87] 2001
262 Bou'in-Zahra earthquake, Iran[88][89] 2002
30,000 Bam earthquake, Iran[90] 2003
177 Earthquake, Turkey[91] 2003
283,106 Tsunami, Indonesia[92][93] 2004
900 Dengue Fever, Indonesia[94] 2004
965 Stampede, northern Baghdad, Iraq[95] 2005
612 Zarand earthquake, Iran[96] 2005
839 Simuelue earthquake, Indonesia[97] 2005
1,300 Northern Sumatra earthquake, Indonesia[98] 2005
630 Nias earthquake, Indonesia[99] 2005
1,300 Northern Sumatra earthquake, Indonesia[100] 2005
86,000 Kashmir earthquake, Pakistan[101] 2005
5,749 Java earthquake, Indonesia[102][103] 2006
70 Borujerd earthquake, Iran[104] 2006
730 Java earthquake, Indonesia[105][106] 2006
160 Kampung Pasir landslide, Malaysia[107] 2006
3 Earthquake, Tajikistan[108] 2006
118 Floods, Malaysia[109] 2006
54 Jakarta flood, Indonesia[110] 2007
68 Sumatra earthquakes, Indonesia[111] 2007
14 Bebejia tornado, Chad[112] 2007
128 Chittagong mudslides, Bangladesh[113] 2007
843 Cyclone Yemyin, Pakistan and Afghanistan[114] 2007
28 Rain-related accidents, Pakistan[115] 2007
500 Floods, Bangladesh[116] 2007
23 Sumatra earthquakes, Indonesia[117] 2007
64 Floods, Sudan[118] 2007
14 Cyclone Akash, Bangladesh[119] 2007
10,000 Cyclone Sidr, Bangladesh[120] 2007
33 Floods, Burkina Faso[118] 2007
78 Cyclone Gonu, Oman and Iran[121] 2007
7 Tornadoes, Bangladesh[122] 2007
926 Blizzard, Afghanistan[123] 2008
7 Bandar Abbas earthquake, Iran[124] 2008
75 Earthquake, Kyrgyzstan[125] 2008
13 Earthquake, Chechnya[126] 2008
215 Quetta earthquake, Pakistan[127] 2008
4 Sulawesi earthquake, Indonesia[128] 2008
200 Yemen cyclone[129] 2008
5 Bukit Antarabangsa landslide, Malaysia[130] 2008
4 Papua earthquake, Indonesia[131] 2009
10 Avalanches, Afghanistan[132] 2009
11 Zigana avalanche, Turkey[133] 2009
100 Situ Gintung Dam failure, Indonesia[134] 2009
179 Cyclone Aila, Bangladesh[135] 2009
22 Earthquake, Afghanistan[136] 2009
6 Cyclone Bijli, Bangladesh[137] 2009
26 Karachi floods, Pakistan[138] 2009
79 West Java earthquake, Indonesia[139] 2009
31 Flash floods, Turkey[140] 2009
1,117 Sumatra earthquake, Indonesia[141] 2009
122 Jeddah floods, Saudi Arabia[142] 2009
20 Attabad landslide, Pakistan[143] 2010
172 Salang avalanches, Afghanistan[144] 2010
1 Tornado, Bangladesh[145] 2010
102 Kohistan avalanche, Pakistan[146] 2010
57 Elazig earthquake, Turkey[147] 2010
43+ Kyzyl-Agash Dam failure, Kazakhstan[148] 2010
11 Earthquake, Afghanistan[149] 2010
2 Bouïra earthquake, Algeria[150] 2010
39 Cyclone Phet, Oman and Pakistan[151] 2010
17 Papua earthquake, Indonesia[152] 2010
193 Leh floods, Jammu and Kashmir[153] 2010
2,000 Flood, Pakistan[154] 2010
145+ West Papua floods, Indonesia[155] 2010
435+ Earthquake, Indonesia[156] 2010
4 Kedah and Perlis floods, Malaysia[157] 2010
353 Eruptions of Mount Merapi, Indonesia[158] 2010
11 Hosseinabad earthquake, Iran[159] 2010
3 Balochistan floods, Pakistan[160] 2011
36 Stampede, Mali[161] 2011
3 Earthquake, Turkey[91] 2011
16 Landslide, Malaysia[91] 2011
7 Landslide, Malaysia[162] 2011
270 Floods, Pakistan[163] 2011
200+ Earthquake, Turkey[164] 2011
5 Earthquake, Indonesia[165] 2012
350-2700 Landslides, Afghanistan[166][167] 2014
6400+ Ebola virus epidemic, Sierra Leone and Guinea[168] 2013-2016


Clearly natural disasters have a tendency to occur in Muslim countries with the deaths of hundreds and thousands of people as a result of these catastrophes. The most significant of these events being the 2004 Indonesian Tsunami resulting in 280,000 deaths.[93] These figures do not include homelessness, displacement, hunger, financial loss and other forms of suffering which result from these disasters. Often hundreds, thousands, and even millions of Muslim survivors are negatively effected. For example, the 2010 Pakistan flood which killed around 2,000 people,[154] left a further 12 million Pakistanis stranded or displaced during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.[169]

Astonishingly even during such a tragedy, Muslims fail to show any compassion or love towards non-Muslims. Some members of Pakistan's Ahmadiyya community were not rescued from their homes because "rescuers felt that Muslims must be given priority."[170][171] Similarly, the Sikh community in Khyber-Pakhtoonkhwa were abandoned and had to "arrange rescue for themselves".[170] Systematic discrimination by government relief workers and Muslim aid agencies against Hindus, Christians, and other flood survivors in the distribution of aid had been reported,[172][173][171][174][175] and five Christian and Hindu villages in Sindh and Punjab were also deliberately flooded as a result of artificial diversions, killing at least 15 people and leaving over 2,800 families homeless.[176]

Conclusion[edit]

Accidents and natural disasters are a common occurrence in the Muslim world. Allah fails to protect his followers and turns a blind eye in times of devastation, leaving them at the mercy of primarily Western and non-Muslim aid.

This leads us to ask the question if Allah is almighty and powerful why does he not protect his followers from catastrophes and devastation? Does he abandon his people on purpose? Does he wish to humiliate his followers by making them dependant on foreign aid and handouts from the very people whom they are not to take as “friends and protectors”? These are questions Muslims need to answer.

Presented with the facts, it is not unreasonable for an honest person to admit Allah does not play any significant role in the lives of Muslims in spite of 7.85 billion[177] potential prayers he receives every day from the worlds Muslims, not to mention the 2 million people who risk their lives by gathering at the Hajj every year to pray to him for the success and safety of Muslims.

Responses to Apologetics[edit]

  1. "Hardships faced by Muslims are intentional tests done by Allah to test the faith of Muslims"
    What kind of God is Allah by killing Muslim women, children and infants in Earthquakes and natural disasters? What exactly does this method of "testing" achieve? Can't the 'testing' be done without killing innocent children and infants? Is Allah testing non-Muslims too when disaster strikes in their countries? If Allah cant even protect his followers in his holy cities, in what way is he helping the Muslims when they pray to him?

  2. "Muslims are being punished for straying away from Islam"
    See the response to #1. Allah should not let infants, women and children in his "punishments" otherwise he is no different from serial killers who torture and kill people.

See Also[edit]

  • Lists - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Lists
  • Natural Disasters - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Natural Disasters

External Links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "...Allah made the Ka'ba, the Sacred House, an asylum of security for men, as also the Sacred Months, the animals for offerings, and the garlands that mark them..." - Qur'an 5:97
  2. 2.0 2.1 Michael Brunton - Hazardous Hajj - TIME, January 15, 2006
  3. Nobert Bermosa - 10 Deadliest Stampedes in History - Bukisa, January 30, 2009
  4. At Least 250 Muslims Die in Mecca Stampede - The New York Times, May 25, 1994
  5. Saudis identifying nationalities of 118 dead pilgrims - BBC News, April 9, 1998
  6. Amr Nabil - 35 die in pilgrimage stampede Tragedy once again strikes as 2 million attend Muslim hajj - The Free Library (originally from The Seattle Times), March 6, 2001
  7. Fourteen killed in Hajj stampede - BBC News, February 11, 2003
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hundreds killed in Hajj stampede - BBC News, February 1, 2004
  9. John Esterbrook - Mecca Death Toll At 76: Deadly Building Collapse Mars Start Of Hajj - CBS News, January 12, 2006
  10. Jason Ramsey - 77 Muslims killed while performing Hajj by Saudi floods - Top News, November 27, 2009
  11. Edward Yeranian - Saudi Health Minister: Five Swine Flu Deaths During Hajj - VOA News, November 29, 2009
  12. Robin Wright - Sacred rage: the wrath of militant Islam (p.148) - Published by Touchstone; Upd Sub edition, December 4, 2001, ISBN: 978-0743233422
  13. Keith McLachlan - Iran and the Continuing Crisis in the Persian Gulf - GeoJournal, Vol.28, Issue 3, November 1992, Pg.359
  14. Reasons Behind the Japanese Tsunami - Islam21c, March 15, 2011
  15. "Do then those who devise evil (plots) feel secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them up, or that the Wrath will not seize them from directions they little perceive?" - Qur'an 16:45
  16. "But they denied him, and the dreadful earthquake took them, and morning found them prostrate in their dwelling place" - Qur'an 29:37
  17. This data is from Hough in his 2008 book Global Security. This does not include industrial or technological accidents and does not include disasters after the year 2008
  18. Peter Hough - Understanding Global Security - Published by Routledge; 2 edition, 21 April 2008, ISBN: 978-0415421423
  19. Roee Nachmias - Hezbollah overjoyed by fire: Arab media disparages Israel over disaster - YNetNews, December 3, 2010
  20. Palestinians celebrating the fall of the twin towers on 911 - Youtube
  21. Senior Kuwaiti Official: ‘Katrina is a Wind of Torment and Evil from Allah Sent to This American Empire’ - MEMRI, Special Dispatch No.977, September 2, 2005
  22. Milis Lingkungan - Damghan, Persia, earthquake (December 22, 856) - Yahoo, June 2, 2008
  23. 23.0 23.1 Top Ten Worst Earthquakes in History - Socyberty, July 2, 2009
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 List of earthquakes in Pakistan - Wikipedia, accessed August, 2010
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Large Earthquakes in Pakistan - DRIP Ireland, accessed August, 2010
  26. M. W. Daly, Carl F. Petry - The Cambridge History of Egypt: Islamic Egypt, 640-1517
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 List of famines - Wikipedia, accessed August, 2010
  28. Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths - U.S. Geological Survey
  29. Gary D. Sharp, Ph.D - 400-1294 A.D. - Center for Climate/Ocean Resources Study
  30. 1509 Istanbul earthquake - Wikipedia, accessed May 21, 2011
  31. Kelud Volcano - Université Libre de Bruxelles, IAVCEI, Commission of Volcanic Lakes
  32. Shamakhi - Absolute Astronomy Encyclopedia, accessed August 2010
  33. Pakistan Earthquake - Museum of Learning, accessed August 2010
  34. Tabriz - Book Rags, accessed August 2010
  35. N. N. Ambraseys, C. P. Melville - A History of Persian Earthquakes (Pg.53) - Published by Cambridge University Press, November 10, 2005, ISBN: 978-0521021876
  36. Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey - Icelandic Volcano Caused Historic Famine In Egypt, Study Shows - Science Daily, November 22, 2006
  37. 37.0 37.1 Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, Kerry Sieh, Mohamed Chlieh, John Galetzka, Bambang W. Suwargadi, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards, Jean-Philippe Avouac, and Steven N. Ward - Journal of Geophysical Research Vol.111 - published June 16, 2006
  38. Physical Geology 2005: Tambora, The year without a summer - Earlham College
  39. Dublin Journal of Medical Science (1872-1920) - Volume 96, Number 3, Part IV. Medical Miscellany, Waterborne cholera
  40. Newcomb, K.R.; McCann W.R. (1987) - Seismic history and seismotectonics of the Sunda Arc - Journal of Geophysical Research 92 (B1): 421–439
  41. Cholera in Egypt - British Medical Journal, September 26, 1896
  42. Yeroushalmi, David (2009). The Jews of Iran in the nineteenth century: aspects of history, community. BRILL. p. 327. ISBN 90-04-15288-1.
  43. Krakatau - Photo Volcanica, accessed August 2010
  44. Medicine: Pestilence in Egyptl - TIME, October 20, 1947
  45. 45.0 45.1 Iranian Earthquakes Since 1900 with 1,000 or More Deaths - Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research
  46. Global Connections Timeline - PBS, accessed August 2010
  47. I Wayan Sengara, Engkon K.Kertapati, and I Gede Mahardika Susila - SEISMIC HAZARD ASSESSMENT IN DENPASAR – BALI - Institute of Technology, Bandung (ITB), Indonesia
  48. List of natural disasters - Wikipedia, accessed August 2010
  49. Major Iranian Earthquakes of the 20th century - Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research
  50. N. N. Ambraseys, C. P. Melville - A History of Persian Earthquakes(Pg.78) - Published by Cambridge University Press, November 10, 2005, ISBN: 978-0521021876
  51. J. S. Tchalenko and M. Berberian - The Salmas (lran) earthquake of May 6th, 1930 - March 20, 1974
  52. 1935 Balochistan Earthquake - Book Rags, accessed August 2010
  53. 1939 Erzincan earthquake - Book Rags, accessed August 2010
  54. Dr. George Pararas-Carayannis - Earthquake and Tsunami of 28 November 1945 in Southern Pakistan - Disaster Pages, accessed August 2010
  55. The World Health Organization (WHO) - Creation - Encyclopedia of the Nations, accessed August 2010
  56. Sir Aly Tewfik Shousha, Pasha, M.D. - Cholera epidemic in Egypt ( 1947 ) - Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 1948
  57. State News Agency of Turkmenistan - Today the People of Turkemenistan Mourn for Those Perished in the 1948 Ashgabat Earthquake - Turkmenistan.gov, October 6, 2007
  58. Alexander Yablokov - The Tragedy of Khait: A Natural Disaster in Tajikistan - Mountain Research and Development Vol 21 No.1, Feb 2001
  59. Iran:Torud Earthquake - Earthquake DataBase, accessed August 2010
  60. This day in History - Sep 9, 1954: Powerful earthquake rocks Algeria - History.com
  61. 61.0 61.1 Major Iranian Earthquakes of the 20th century - Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research
  62. 1960 Agadir earthquake - ScienceStage, accessed August 2010
  63. Historic Worldwide Earthquakes: Iran - United States Geological Survey, January 29, 2009
  64. Worldwide Tornadoes--Bangladesh - Tornado Project Online, 2007
  65. Charles R. Hutt, William H. K. Lee - 1968 Dasht-e-Bayaz (Iran) Earthquake Archive - Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, October 2, 2004
  66. Ken Polsson - Chronology of Extreme Weather - Polsson's WebWorld, accessed August 2010
  67. Great Bhola Cyclone, Bangladesh - World Disasters, June 2, 2009
  68. Timeline: Major earthquakes in Iran - Reuters, September 10, 2008
  69. NOAA'S TOP GLOBAL WEATHER, WATER AND CLIMATE EVENTS OF THE 20 TH CENTURY - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, December 13, 1999
  70. 1974 Hunza earthquake - Absolute Astronomy Encyclopedia, accessed August 2010
  71. Bangladesh famine of 1974 - Nation Master Encyclopedia, accessed August 2010
  72. Professor Nurul Islam - What Was it About The 1974 Bangladesh Famine? - Scholars Bangladesh, 2003
  73. Earthquakes with 1,000 or More Deaths since 1900 - U.S. Geological Survey
  74. On this day - 16 September, 1978: Thousands dead in Iran earthquake - BBC News, accessed August 2010
  75. Tornado - April 1989, Bangladesh - inTERRAgate, February 18, 2007
  76. Y. Sattarazadeh-Ghadim - Reasons of Extraordinarily Higher Damage in 1990 Manjil Earthquake, Iran - University of Tarbriz
  77. Tropical Cyclone - April 1991, Bangladesh - inTERRAgate, February 18, 2007
  78. Red Cross: Somalia facing severe famine - CNN, June 04, 2008
  79. Very broadband seismic analysis of the 1992 Flores, Indonesia Earthquake - Department of Earth Science, University of California, Santa Barbara
  80. Jonathan D. Finch and Ashraf M. Dewan - Tornados in Bangladesh and East India/Bangladesh Tornado Climatology - Bangladesh and East India Tornado Prediction Site, May 23, 2007
  81. Garrett Nagle - Hazards (Pg.16) - Published by Nelson Thornes Ltd, May 19, 1999, ISBN: 978-0174900221
  82. Waverly J. Person - Significant Earthquakes of the World: 1997 - U.S. Geological Survey
  83. Iranian Earthquake Kills 500, Injures 2,000 - CNN, March 1, 1997
  84. Magnitude 7.6 TURKEY 1999 August 17 00:01:39 UTC - U.S. Geological Survey
  85. Marza, Vasile I. (2004). On the death toll of the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) major earthquake. ESC General Assembly Papers, Potsdam: European Seismological Commission
  86. Magnitude 7.9 SOUTHERN SUMATERA, INDONESIA - U.S. Geological Survey
  87. Nigeria cholera outbreak kills 400 - BBC News, November 26, 2001 (Nigeria has a Muslim majority of 50.4%)
  88. [http://www.gsi.ir/Images/seismotectoni/2005_changureh_gji.pdf The 2002 June 22 Changureh (Avaj) earthquake in Qazvin province] - GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF IRAN
  89. Magnitude 6.5 WESTERN IRAN 2002 June 22 02:58:21 UTC - U.S. Geological Survey
  90. Victoria Kianpour - CPRN Volume 2, Issue 1 - United Nations Development Programme, 2006
  91. 91.0 91.1 91.2 Turkey quake kills 3, injures nearly 100 people - Associated Press, May 20, 2011
  92. Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster - University at Buffalo Libraries, accessed August 2010
  93. 93.0 93.1 Indonesia quake toll jumps again - BBC News, January 25, 2005
  94. Tatty E. Setiati, Jiri F.P. Wagenaar, Martijn D. de Kruif, Albert T.A. Mairuhu, Eric C.M. van Gorp and Augustinus Soemantri - Changing Epidemiology of Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever in Indonesia - Dengue Bulletin, Volume 30, 2006
  95. Iraq stampede deaths near 1,000 - BBC News, August 31, 2005
  96. United Nations Field Assessment Team Report on Zarand Earthquake - United Nations Development Programme, April 8, 2005
  97. ASC: 28 March 2005, M8.7 Nias-Simeulue Earthquake - Amateur Seismic Centre, February 22, 2008
  98. 2005 Sumatra earthquake - Wikipedia, accessed August 2010
  99. Dr Ann Gibbs MIE(Aust) CPEng, David Lavell MIE(Aust) CPEng, Robert Snashall MIE(Aust) CPEng, Howard Sullivan FIE(Aust) CPEng - Indonesia (Nias Island) Earthquake AusAID Rapid Structural Engineering Damage Assessment Final Report - RedR Australia, April 22, 2005
  100. 2005 Sumatra earthquake - Earthquake and damage - Global Oneness
  101. 2005 Kashmir Earthquake Case Study - Scienceray, April 20, 2009
  102. Nakano, M., H. Kumagai, K. Miyakawa, T. Yamashina, H. Inoue, M. Ishida, S. Aoi, N. Morikawa, and P. Harjadi - Source Estimates of the May 2006 Java Earthquake - Eos Trans. AGU, 87(45), doi:10.1029/2006EO450002. November 7, 2006
  103. Indonesian Death Toll Surpasses 5,800 - Official - AFX News Limited, May 31, 2006
  104. Iran Doroud Earthquake Information Bulletin no.3 - IFRC, April 1, 2006
  105. Justin McCurry - Powerful earthquake hits Indonesia - The Guardian, September 2, 2009
  106. Death Toll from Indonesian Tsunami hits 650 - The Associated Press, July 22, 2006
  107. Landslide: S'gor MB May Refer Project Developer To ACA - Bernama, June 1, 2006
  108. Tajikistan: At least 9,000 left homeless following tremors - IRIN News, July 31, 2006
  109. Indonesia struggles to help flood victims - New York Times, December 29, 2006
  110. Karima Anjani and Wahyudi Soeriaatmadja - Jakarta Flood Death Toll Rises to 54; Rain Hits City (Update1) - Bloomberg, February 8, 2007
  111. Indonesia: Earthquakes West Sumatra Province OCHA Situation Report No. 6 - United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, March 16, 2007
  112. Tornado kills 14 in southern Chad - IOL News, May 9, 2007 (Chad has a Muslim majority of 54%)
  113. Strong action against mentors of hill cutting: 8000 people to be evacuated - The New Nation, June 15, 2007
  114. Cyclone Yemyin - Wikipedia, accessed March 25, 2011 (figure excludes the additional fatalities in India)
  115. Flood victims clash with police in India, 30 hurt - Reuters, August 11, 2007
  116. Serajul Islam Quadir - Bangladesh flood death toll nears 500, thousands ill - Reuters, August 15, 2007
  117. Death toll from Indonesian quake reaches 23 as villagers start returning home - The Star, September 16, 2007
  118. 118.0 118.1 2007 African floods - Wikipedia, accessed March 24, 2011
  119. Cyclone Akash - Wikipedia, accessed March 25, 2011
  120. Up to 10,000 dead, millions homeless in Bangladesh: officials - AFP, November 18, 2007
  121. Report on Cyclonic Disturbances over North Indian Ocean during 2007 - India Meteorological Department, January, 2008
  122. BANGLADESH: Tornado season begins in earnest - IRIN News, October 17, 2007
  123. Freezing weather kills over 900 people in Afghanistan - RIA Novosti News, February 16, 2008
  124. Three villages devastated, hundreds under rubble - Al-Arabiya, December 21, 2010
  125. Kyrgyzstan mourns quake dead - GMA News, October 7, 2008
  126. Deadly earthquake hits Chechnya - BBC News, October 11, 2008
  127. Salman Masood - Quake in Pakistan Kills at Least 215 - New York Times, October 29, 2008
  128. Four killed in Indonesia quake - ABC News, November 17, 2008
  129. 2008 Yemen cyclone - Wikipedia, accessed March 24, 2011
  130. 2008 Bukit Antarabangsa landslide - Wikipedia, accessed March 24, 2011
  131. Four killed as quake strikes Indonesia's Papua - Telly Nathalia and Andreas Ismar, Reuters, January 4, 2009
  132. Afghanistan avalanches kill 10 - Irish Independent, January 18, 2009
  133. Zigana avalanche kills 11 mountain trekkers - Hürriyet Daily News, January 26, 2009
  134. Walhi Cites 6 Officials For Dam Negligence - Jakarta Globe, April 7, 2009
  135. Bangladesh to allocate $100 mln in next budget to combat climate change - People's Daily Online, June 11, 2010
  136. Deadly quakes strike Afghanistan - BBC News, April 17, 2009
  137. 6 killed as cyclone crosses Bangla coast - News4u, April 20, 2009
  138. Monsoon kills 26 in Pakistan's Karachi, cuts power - Reuters, July 19, 2009
  139. Korban Tewas Akibat Gempa Sudah 79 Orang - Kompas News, September 8, 2009
  140. Record floods kill 31 - AFP, September 10, 2009
  141. Indonesia quake deaths pass 1,000 - BBC News, October 1, 2009
  142. 2,800 flood-hit families get aid - Arab news, January 3,2010
  143. Attabad Lake victims end protest after talks - The Nation, May 22, 2010
  144. Afghanistan reopens Salang Pass after avalanches kill 172 - TREND News, February 13, 2010
  145. Two Tornados Touch Down - Star Tribune, February 18, 2010
  146. 102 confirmed dead in north Pakistan's avalanche - Xinhua, February 21, 2010
  147. Turkish earthquake kills dozens - Haroon Siddique, Guardian, March 8, 2010
  148. Death toll in Kazakhstan floods rises to 43 - RIA Novosti, March 24, 2010
  149. 2010 Afghanistan earthquake - Wikipedia, accessed March 23, 2011
  150. Algeria earthquake kills two: report - Reuters, May 14, 2010
  151. Cyclone Phet - Wikipedia, accessed March 23, 2011 (total with 5 deaths in India equals 44)
  152. Indonesian earthquake death toll climbs to 17 - CNN News, June 21, 2010
  153. Leh flood - Visit Ladakh News, August 8, 2010
  154. 154.0 154.1 Pakistan: Devastating flood, one year later - The Boston Globe, August 5, 2011
  155. Indonesia president to visit Papua disaster zone - Radio New Zealand International, October 12, 2010
  156. Indonesia Battles Disasters on Two Fronts - Jakarta Globe, October 30, 2010
  157. 2010 north Malaysian floods - Wikipedia, accessed March 23, 2011
  158. Indonesia Downgrades Mount Merapi’s Danger Level - Jakarta Globe, December 3, 2010
  159. 2010 Hosseinabad earthquake - Wikipedia, accessed March 23, 2011
  160. Balochistan’s 166,000 flood victims still homeless: UNHCR - DAWN, January 28, 2011
  161. 36 killed in Mali stampede - Associated Press, February 21, 2011
  162. 7 dead after heavy rain triggers landslide near Malaysian resort - The China Post, August 9, 2011
  163. Pakistan Floods 2011: Hundreds Killed, 200,000 Homeless (PHOTOS) - The Huffington Post, Sepember 13, 2011
  164. Turkey earthquake death toll rising - Guardian, October 24, 2011
  165. Five people killed in Indonesian Aceh earthquakes - BBC News, April 12, 2012
  166. "Afghan landslide survivor search abandoned", Al-Jazeera, May 4, 2014, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2014/05/thousands-reported-dead-afghan-landslide-20145372655196915.html. 
  167. "2,700 feared dead in Afghanistan landslide", Dawn, May 4, 2014, http://www.dawn.com/news/1104028. 
  168. Note: Liberia was the country worst affected by the Ebola virus, but it is not Muslim majority.
  169. Flooded Pakistan evacuates thousands - United Press International, August 8, 2010
  170. 170.0 170.1 Imtiaz Ahmad - Minorities denied flood relief in Pakistan - Hindustan Times, August 18, 2010
  171. 171.0 171.1 A. Abdul Aziz. Press Secretary, Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at, Sri Lanka - Pakistan floods and the minorities. - LankaWeb, August 20, 2010
  172. International Editor, Patrick Goodenough - Westerners Urged to Earmark Aid for Pakistan’s Marginalized Christians - CNS News, September 2, 2010
  173. Pakistani Christians face aid discrimination: Vatican - Dawn, August 26, 2010
  174. Protest in Pakistan flood relief camp after beef served to Hindus - The Navhind Times, August 24, 2010
  175. Dibin Samuel - Christians in Pakistan missing out on flood aid, bishop warns - Christian Today, August 7, 2010
  176. Pakistan: 4 more Christian villages deliberately flooded - Catholic Culture, September 3, 2010
  177. 1.57 billion Muslims x 5 prayers a day