Antisemitism in Islam
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Jews have historically suffered dhimmi status under caliphates of the past, like all religious minorities permitted to keep to their faiths under Islamic rule. At times and places this co-existence was had a quality of tolerance, sometimes persecution. In recent times the Islamic intellectual, social, and political milieu has grafted itself onto more Western notions of antisemitism, especially as expressed and ideologized by Nazi Germany. Modern Islamic antisemitism is consequently based upon a medley of Islamic scriptural citations and new-fangled Western (and especially Nazi) terminologies and tropes. In illustration of this, modern Islamic anti-Jewish polemics often feature in Arab book-fairs and bookstores alongside Arabic translations of Hitlers Mein Kumpf (sometimes translated in Arabic as "My Jihad"). Some academic scholars date the modern increase in anti-semitism in the Muslim world to the beginnings of the Arab-Israeli conflict, while others trace it to the 19th century and possible influence from Arab Christians.
According to Islamic scripture, the Jews, like Christians and other pre-Islamic religious groups considered "People of the Book", were given guidance from God (in this case the Torah, or Taurat) which, being corrupted by those amongst them entrusted with safeguarding it, lost its original message and thereafter led them astray. In addition to this general accusation of corrupted scripture, Islamic scriptures often single out Jews as being guilty of certain sins and crimes, both historically and into perpetuity. As a result of these misdeeds, Jews are reported by Islamic scriptures to have suffered certain punishments at the hand of God (being turned into pigs and apes) and at the hand of Muhammad (being executed, expelled, enslaved, and extorted by Muhammad's companions in Medina).
According to many modern, critically-oriented and source-skeptical historians of Islam, it is likely that Muhammad himself was not hostile to Medinan Jews. These historians argue that many verses in the Qur'an (which is generally considered a source contemporary to Muhammad) that directly address the fate of Muhammad's contemporary Jews are rather tolerant and that truly violent intolerance would have been unlikely to emerge from the highly cosmopolitan environment of pre-Islamic Arabia. This, they argue, contrasts sharply with the much later hadith sources which are frequently intensely vitriolic in their address of Jews and record such events as the expulsions, persecution, enslavement, and execution of Medinan Jews en masse. Historians who incline towards this line of reasoning argue that this content found in the hadith was only invented later by Muslim authorities as polemical material to employ against Jews and Judaism. Not all historians are convinced by these arguments, however, as indirect mention of the Jews in the Quran itself is often highly critical and at times straightforwardly insulting. This debate is, however, a strictly academic one, and mainstream Islamic scholars stand firmly by the narrative found in the hadith literature.
Islamic, Christian, and modern antisemitism
Any notion of Islamic antisemitism must be distinguished, through both comparison and contrast, from the form of antisemitism which has, and in a few places continues to, oppress Jews in the (usually Christian) West. The English term of antisemitism is usually used to refer to the Western hatred of Jews by Christians which, at least historically, was deeply rooted in Christian religious beliefs about the status of Jews as a people responsible for the murder (deicide) of God in the form of Jesus Christ. There was also the idea of the failure of the Jews to embrace the New Testament and the new covenant with God advanced by Christians. These two ideas, coupled with historical allusions to the religious failures of early Jews according the Old Testament and stereotypes about Jews (such as their financial cunning and exaggerated physique) which accreted in the centuries after Jesus' demise, worked together to constitute a uniquely acute and religious hatred of the Jewish people which in some ways, if not formally than practically, almost amounted to a Christian religious doctrine.
What can be termed "Islamic antisemitism" is in part similar and in part different from the legacy of antisemitism found in the West. Islamic antisemitism shares in common with its Christian counterpart a vague reliance on the religious failures of the ancient Hebrews as recorded in the Old Testament (and later the Quran) as well as on the failure of Jews to convert, en masse, to the follow-up religion (in this case Islam). Islam, however, lacks such an acute and and loaded accusation against the post-Islamic Jews as the Christian charge of deicide. Consequently, the Jews are perceived as having historically disappointed God but not as being uniquely sinful to an extent as extreme as deicide. Still, some would argue that where Islam lacks this sort of calamitous accusation against the Jews, it more than compensates in its depiction of Muhammad singling Jews out for persecution in the hadith literature. Whereas Jesus' victimhood to the Jews was the primary motivation of Christian antisemitism, Muhammad's (perhaps mythical) victimization of the Jews can be understood as the primary motivation of Islamic antisemitism.
More important today than the historical origins and constitution of either form of antisemitism, however, is how they responded to the rise and fall of Nazi Germany. In the West, the manifestation and consequences of Nazi Ideology threw the incompatibility of Christian antisemitism and Enlightenment values into excruciating sharp relief. Western nations, faced with this fork in the road, decided to marshal popular spirit against Nazi ideology in the name of human rights. By contrast, much of the Muslim world, already at loggerheads with the West due to recent and ongoing struggles against colonialism, positioned itself against the Nazis enemies and thus behind the Nazis. Henceforth, what were once somewhat vaguer notions of anti-Jewish sentiment based largely in Islamic scripture now incorporated much of the pseudo-scientific and rationalized nature of German antisemitism. The expression of Islamic antisemitism in the modern world, while still couched in religious terminology and religiously justified as fundamentally Islamic, often employs the symbolic and practical methods of the Nazis. In summary, the phenomenon of Nazi Germany placed both Western and Islamic antisemitism at a cross roads. And while the West decided at this point in history to overcome its past and begin a secular crusade against antisemitism and other forms of discrimination (with the Civil Rights Movement), the Islamic world found new fuel for antisemitism (in the form of translating Nazi propaganda into Arabic and incorporating the material into textbooks) that would enable it to take its antisemitism to new and previously unknown heights.
The Arabs, Ethiopians, and Assyrians are considered as comprising the Semitic people. However, in the context of "Anti-Semitism", it is commonly understood to refer to people who identify as Jewish. Indeed, the Princeton dictionary explicitly defines antisemitism as an "intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people". And Merriam-Webster defines it as "hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group".
Recent scientific studies have also shown that Jews, unlike Muslims or Christians, are reliably identifiable as an ethnic group with unique genes, many of whom also share a common language and culture. As a result, the Jewish people are increasingly recognized as not only a distinct religious group, but also an ethnic minority.
Islamic scripture and antisemitism
The Qur'an contains many charges and criticisms of the Jewish people which are both general and highly specific in nature. Some of the more general invectives are made against People of the Book (those who are said to have received and corrupted scripture from Allah in the past) as a group, and thus cannot be considered as attacks on Jews alone.
Invective specific to Jews
Jews must believe in the Qur'an or else Allah will distort their faces and take away their fame so that they become unrecognizable, turning them backwards, or curse them.
The Jews knowing full well that Isa was a Messenger of Allah, attempted to kill him in defiance of their deity.
Because the Jews are sinful, Allah made more rules for them than for anyone else, and they have hindered many from the way of Allah.
Jews will listen to any lie.
The Jews were stamped with humiliation and wretchedness.
Muslims must not take the Jews as friends and protectors or else Allah will not guide them.
Jews are the most hateful towards Muslims.
The Jews say Ezra is the son of Allah which makes them perverse, and even Allah fights against them.
Allah turned some Jews into apes and pigs for breaking the Sabbath.
Since the Jews have said that Allah's hand is tied up, their hands will be tied up and they will be cursed. They are obstinant, rebellious, and blasphemous, and Allah has cursed them with enmity and hatred until Judgment day. Allah halts their efforts of warfare, and they are always causing mischief.
According to some Islamic commentators, Satan (Iblis) too is cursed by Allah in the same way the Jews are cursed. Allah has likewise granted respite to Satan until the Day of Judgment, and, it is thus argued, there is no difference between Satan and Jews in this respect, because both are accursed.
Invective not specific to Jews but including them
Jews are only satisfied if you follow Judaism.
Most of the Jews are faithless, perverted transgressors.
Muslims must fight the Jews, until they submit in shame and pay the Jizyah.
Muhammad is central to Islam. As the uswa hasana (perfect example), every action on his part (as recorded in the hadith) is foundational to the laws and doctrine of Islam. Emulating Muhammad's Sunnah, or "way", is considered the most pious of endeavors. Many if not most of the following hadiths, while considered authentic and canonical to orthodox Islam, have been cast into doubt by source-critical historians who argue that these traditions may have emerged when latter Muslims sought justification for their hatred of Jews by projecting their views back to Muhammad in the form of mythical anecdotes from his life.
Muhammad's dying words included a curse on Jews for building their place of worship at their prophets' graves.
Muhammad said that during his "Night Journey" (al-Isra wal-Miraj) to heaven on the mythical flying Buraq, Moses wept because there would be more Muslims in heaven than Jews.
Jews earn Allah's anger.
Muslims must not greet Jews before the Jews greet them, and they should force Jews to go to the narrowest part of the road.
The latter teaching, among other things, became enshrined as a part of Shariah laws regulating the social presence of dhimmis.
The Final Hour will not come until Muslims slaughter Jews, and even the rocks and trees will betray the Jews hiding behind them, save one tree from the land of Israel.
This event, considered the ultimate victory of Islam, is often recalled in sermons preceding weekly Friday Islamic prayers.
Muslims will be spared hell-fire by Allah on the Day of Resurrection by making Jews take their place and be thrown into hell.
Islamic scholars and antisemitism
Early Islamic scholars
The views expressed in early Islamic writings and authoritative Qur'anic commentaries (tafsirs) demonstrate that Islamic hatred of Jews is not an entirely modern phenomenon. Instead, a strong hatred of the Jewish people has been a part of the Islamic scholarly tradition from the earliest times. The changes that have taken place are more a matter of degree than species. While Islamic antisemitism is more frequent and reliant on pseudoscience than it was in the past, the religious justification for it has effectively stayed the same.
Contemporary Islamic scholars
When you look at the many anti-Semitic sermons and articles by Muslim Scholars, the inspiration behind them is hard to miss. Without the anti-Semitic sentiments found within Islamic scripture and classical Muslim thinking, these attacks on the Jewish race would lose much of their meaning and impact among the Muslim listeners.
They have continued to scheme against Islam and the Muslim community ever since. They were instrumental in the chaotic events that led to the assassination of the third rightly-guided Caliph. 'Uthman ibn 'Affan and to the emergence of division in the Muslim community. They were the main culprits in the conflict that took place between 'Ali and Mu 'awiyah. They led the way in the fabrication of false statements attributed to the Prophet, historical reports and baseless interpretations of Qur'anic statements. They also paved the way to the victory of the Tartars and their conquest of Baghdad and the fall of the Islamic Caliphate.In modern history, the Jews have been behind every calamity that has befallen the Muslim communities everywhere. They give active support to every attempt to crush the modem Islamic revival and extend their protection to every regime that suppresses such a revival.
Antisemitic literature in the Islamic world
Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf, written by Adolf Hitler, is a modern-day best-seller in the Arab and wider Islamic world in countries including including: Egypt, Palestine, Turkey, and had also sold well in London areas with large Arab populations. It is often sold along-side religious literature. Mein Kampf is sometimes translated as "My Jihad" in Arabic. Mein Kampf has sold as well as Dan Brown's latest novel in Dhaka, Bangladesh, where sales of the book have been reported to soar around Eid, likely due to its being bought by significant numbers as an Eid gift.
Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion is a 19th century anti-Semitic tract that remains immensely popular in the Islamic world. It was a forgery made in Russia for the Okhrana (secret police) and blames the Jews for the country’s ills. It was first privately printed in 1897 and was made public in 1905. Adolf Hitler later used the Protocols to help justify his attempt to exterminate Jews during World War II. Its popularity has led to it being adapted as a TV mini-series broadcasted in various Islamic countries.
Saudi Ministry of Education textbooks
As with homophobic writing, anti-Semitic literature in the Muslim world is not confined to bookstores. The following are extracts taken from 2010-11 Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies:
Islamic antisemitism in the modern world
Anti-Semitic incidents around the world more than doubled in 2009 compared to the previous year, and most violent attacks in Western Europe came from people of Arab or Muslim heritage.
. . .
In Europe, Britain and France led with the number of incidents, according to the report. There were 374 violent incidents against Jews recorded in Britain in 2009, compared to 112 in 2008, according to the institute. France saw 195 attacks in 2009 compared to 50 the previous year. Britain and France have the highest Jewish populations in Europe, as well as the largest Muslim populations.Only 78 incidents of anti-Semitic violence were recorded in 1989, the year that the institute began recording such incidents. In 2009, some 41 of the incidents were armed assaults directed at Jews because of their religion; 34 incidents were arson, according to the report.
. . .
The year in the wake of Operation Cast Lead was the worst since monitoring of anti-Semitic manifestations began, in terms of both major anti-Semitic violence and the hostile atmosphere generated worldwide by the mass demonstrations and verbal and visual expressions against Israel and the Jews," the report said.
The report, considered an important bellwether of anti-Jewish sentiment worldwide, was released ahead of Holocaust Remembrance Day in cooperation with the European Jewish Congress (EJC).
Among its most dramatic findings was a 102 percent increase in anti-Jewish violence worldwide, from 559 incidents in 2008 to 1,129 in 2009.
In addition, there were "many more hundreds of threats, insults, graffiti signs and slogans and demonstrations featuring virulently anti-Semitic content... sometimes resulting in violence," according to the report.
A significant part of this increase took place in the UK, where violence jumped from 112 incidents in 2008 to 374 last year; in France, where the jump was from 50 to 195, and in Canada, where incidents soared from 13 to 138.
The US, which ordinarily enjoys a very low rate of anti-Jewish violence compared to the size of its Jewish community, nonetheless saw a modest rise, from 98 to 116 incidents.
In some countries, these figures are only the latest spike in a continuing trend. The British Jewish community's monitoring system counted a three-fold increase in anti-Semitic occurrences since 1999, while Canada counted a five-fold increase since 2000.
Most violent attacks in Western Europe came from people of Arab or Muslim heritage, the report found.
. . .
In 2009, however, “white” attacks [in the UK] dropped to 48% and “Asian” or “Arab” attacks jumped to 43%.During the month of January 2009, in the midst of Operation Cast Lead, “Asian” and “Arab” attackers accounted for fully 54% of incidents, although the Muslim community numbers just 4% of the general population.
Muslim Majority Nations
100 percent of Jordanians view Jews unfavorably
In the West
. . .
Experience has taught him that the boys taunting him are almost always of Moroccan descent.“Their reasoning goes something like this: Israelis are Jews, Palestinians are Arabs, so we Moroccan ‘Arabs’ in the Netherlands are going to take on Dutch Jews,” said Menno ten Brink, a rabbi for the liberal Jewish community in Amsterdam.
Incidentally, what was being measured here was not antagonism toward Israel but traditional anti-Jewish stereotypes. No doubt, the former attitude is even stronger.
The anti-Jewish sentiments among Muslims don't vary depending on education level or living standards. Obviously, they aren't getting it from Belgian society."The antisemitism is theologically inspired," says the sociologist, Professor Mark Elchardus. "There is a direct link between being Muslim and antisemitic feelings...
Among adults 39 percent of Muslim Swedes have a systematically negative view of Jews compared to 5 percent among the rest
Jews left Sweden when hate crimes double
She raised a family in the city of Malmo, and for the next six decades lived happily in her adopted homeland - until last year.
In 2009, a chapel serving the city's 700-strong Jewish community was set ablaze. Jewish cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated, worshippers were abused on their way home from prayer, and "Hitler" was mockingly chanted in the streets by masked men.
"I never thought I would see this hatred again in my lifetime, not in Sweden anyway," Mrs Popinski told The Sunday Telegraph.
"This new hatred comes from Muslim immigrants. The Jewish people are afraid now."
. . .
The future looks so bleak that by one estimate, around 30 Jewish families have already left for Stockholm, England or Israel, and more are preparing to go.
With its young people planning new lives elsewhere, the remaining Jewish households, many of whom are made up of Holocaust survivors and their descendants, fear they will soon be gone altogether. Mrs Popinski, an 86-year-old widow, said she has even encountered hostility when invited to talk about the Holocaust in schools.
"Muslim schoolchildren often ignore me now when I talk about my experiences in the camps," she said. "It is because of what their parents tell them about Jews. The hatreds of the Middle East have come to Malmo. Schools in Muslim areas of the city simply won't invite Holocaust survivors to speak any more."
Hate crimes, mainly directed against Jews, doubled last year with Malmo's police recording 79 incidents and admitting that far more probably went unreported. As of yet, no direct attacks on people have been recorded but many Jews believe it is only a matter of time in the current climate.
. . .
After the war, just as liberal Sweden took in Jews who survived the Holocaust as a humanitarian act, it also took in new waves of refugees from tyranny and conflicts in the Middle East. Muslims are now estimated to make up about a fifth of Malmo's population of nearly 300,000.
"This new hatred from a group 40,000-strong is focused on a small group of Jews," Mrs Popinski said, speaking in a sitting room filled with paintings and Persian carpets."Some Swedish politicians are letting them do it, including the mayor. Of course the Muslims have more votes than the Jews."
Thus, Jews represent less than .0025% of the city, but account for 45% of all hate crimes. Could that have something to do with Malmo’s 60,000 Muslims?Malmo Rabbi Shneur Kesselman says: “In the past five years I’ve been here, I think you can count on your hand how many (anti-Semitic) incidents there have been from the extreme right. In my personal experience, it’s 99% Muslim.” Jewish resident Marcus Eilenberg, whose survivor grandparents found shelter in Malmo in 1945, says Jews there are confronting “a degree of hate that none of us – except those who survived the Holocaust – had experienced before.”
About 2 out of 5 British Muslims believe Jews are "a legitimate target"
A study published today shows the number of reported anti-Semitic incidents has almost tripled in 10 years, with more than half the attacks last year taking place in London. The findings prompted the report’s authors to warn of a “wave of hatred” against Jews. The number of incidents increased to 594 last year, up by 31 per cent on the previous year.Violent assaults soared to 112, up by more than a third on 2005.
Modern revisionist perspectives and challenges thereto
Some modern and especially Western Islamic authorities make efforts to portray Muhammad in a better light vis-a-vis Jews by suggesting that he attended a Jew's funeral and forgave a Jewish woman who used to throw garbage and carrion at his doorstep. Traditionally these stories are considered weak or fabricated hadiths are therefore not considered legitimate basis for doctrine by traditional and mainstream Islamic authorities. most often these favorable anecdotes from the prophet's life are taken from hadith and sira books that are otherwise dismissed by the same modern and western authorities as unreliable, such as Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Saad and Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain.
- Antisemitism - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Antisemitism
- Antisemitism in the Qur’an - Andrew G. Bostom
- Equating Anti-Semitism with ‘Islamophobia’ - Phyllis Chesler, FrontPageMagazine, May 31, 2011
- The Expulsion of the Jews from Muslim Countries, 1920-1970: A History of Ongoing Cruelty and Discrimination - Prof. Shmuel Trigano, The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs', November 15, 2010
- New research: One people! Jews the world over share age-old genetic ties - Judy Siegel-Itzkovich, The Jerusalem Post, June 4, 2010
- Misunderstanding Islamic Antisemitism - Andrew G. Bostom, American Thinker, May 11, 2008
- Anti-Semitism in Islam: Israel Didn't Start the Fire - Timothy R. Furnish, History News Network, February 5, 2007
- The Mufti of Berlin: Arab-Nazi collaboration is a taboo topic in the West - Daniel Schwammenthal, The Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2009
- Double Standard Watch: Will Hamas's new "Culture War" acknowledge its historic ties to Nazism? - Alan M. Dershowitz, The Jerusalem Post, Jul 26, 2009
- A brief look at Moosa (peace be upon him) - Islam Q&A, Fatwa No. 10242
- Antisemitism in the Academic Voice: Confronting Bigotry under the First Amendment - Kenneth Lasson, September 2010
- American Muslim Extremists: A Growing Threat to Jews - ADL, August 6, 2010
- Society For Voluntary Jewish Extinction Fights Islamophobia - Don Feder, GrassTopsUSA, September 20, 2010
- Fourteen centuries of hatred - Jonathan Kay, The National Post, October 12, 2010
- Forward to the Past - Victor Sharpe, American Thinker, October 17, 2010
- The forgotten Holocaust: The Armenian massacre that inspired Hitler - Daily Mail, October 11, 2007
- The Qu'ran vs. Mein Kampf - Joshuapundit, May 2, 2006
In the news
- Muslim website removes ‘anti-semitic’ videos following complaint - Stewart Bell, National Post, April 13, 2011
- Government to pay for security guards at Jewish schools - BBC News, December 9, 2010
- Wiesenthal Center tells Jews not to travel to Sweden - Benjamin Weinthal & Gil Shefler, Jerusalem Post, December 16, 2010
- Hezbollah overjoyed by fire: Arab media disparages Israel over disaster - Roee Nachmias, YNetNews, December 3, 2010
- Israeli Doctors Help Sick in Maldives, Muslims Protest saying it is against Islam to have relations with Jews - Savage Infidel, November 26, 2010
- British Muslim Schools Teach Saudi Hatred of Jews and Israelis - Chana Ya'ar, All Voices, November 22 2010
- Senior Iranian cleric dismisses Nazi Holocaust as 'superstition' - The Daily Mail, September 5, 2010
- The Muslim Council of Britain's disgusting decision to boycott Holocaust Memorial Day - James Forsyth, Coffee House, The Spectator blog, January 26, 2009
- New York-Based Muslim's Web Site Calls for God to 'Kill the Jews' - Joshua Rhett Miller, Fox News, October 13, 2009
- Secret Mission Rescues Yemen's Jews - Miriam Jordan, The Wall Street Journal, October 31, 2009
- Holocaust:Hezbollah Against 'Diary of Anne Frank' in Arabic - ANSAmed, November 5, 2009
From the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI)
- As Gaza Fighting Continues, Egyptian Clerics Intensify Antisemitic Statements; Columbus, Ohio Muslim Scholar/Leader Dr. Salah Sultan: Muhammad Said That Judgment Day Will Not Come Until Muslims Fight the Jews and Kill Them; America Will Suffer Destruction - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 2165, December 30, 2008
- Hamas Al-Aqsa TV: A Mickey Mouse Character Teaches Children About the Islamic Rule of the World And to ‘Annihilate the Jews' - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 1577, May 9, 2007
- Iranian Leaders: Statements and Positions (Part I) - MEMRI: Special Report, No. 39, January 5, 2006
- Antisemitism in the Turkish Media - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 900, April 28, 2005
- Antisemitism and Holocaust Denial in the Iranian Media - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 855, January 28, 2005
- Palestinian Authority Sermons 2000-2003 - Steven Stalinsky, MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 24, December 26, 2003
- Based on Koranic Verses, Interpretations, and Traditions, Muslim Clerics State: The Jews Are the Descendants of Apes, Pigs, And Other Animals - Aluma Solnick, MEMRI: Special Report, No. 11, November 1, 2002
- Friday Sermons in Saudi Mosques: Review and Analysis - MEMRI: Special Report, No. 10, September 26, 2002
- Saudi Government Daily: Jews Use Teenagers' Blood for 'Purim' Pastries - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 354, March 12, 2002
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 Alastair Lawson - Mein Kampf a hit on Dhaka streets - BBC News, November 27, 2009
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Hitler's 'Mein Kampf' sells 50,000 copies in Turkey in three months - Agence France Presse, March 18, 2005
- ↑ Rory Jones, Fury as Virgin Megastore recommends Hitler's Mein Kampf, The National News, December 6, 2011 (archived from the original), https://web.archive.org/save/https://www.thenationalnews.com/business/fury-as-virgin-megastore-recommends-hitler-s-mein-kampf-1.404552
- ↑ Definition - Antisemitism Princeton University's WordNet
- ↑ Definition - Anti-Semitism Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
- ↑ Jews' Genetics Make Them A 'Distinct Population': NYU/Yeshiva Study - The Huffington Post, June 4, 2010
- ↑ Andrew G. Bostom - Understanding the Islam in Islamic Antisemitism - NewEnglishReview, 2 June 2009
- ↑ Andrew G. Bostom - Why Islam’s Jew-Hating Hadith Matter - FrontPageMagazine, October 03, 2008
- ↑ Sayyid Qutb, In the Shade of the Qur'an, vol. 8: Surah 9 (Leicestershire, UK, 2003), pp. 1 15- 16, 120-23.
- ↑ Sheikh Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi: Allah Imposed Hitler On the Jews to Punish Them – 'Allah Willing, the Next Time Will Be at the Hand of the Believers' - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 2224, February 3, 2009
- ↑ Sheik Yousuf Al-Qaradhawi Incites against Jews, Arab Regimes, and the U.S., and Calls on Muslims to Boycott Starbucks, Marks and Spencer - MEMRI TV, Video Clip No. 1979, Al-Jazeera TV (Qatar) - January 9, 2009 - 10:44
- ↑ Dr. Leah Kinberg - Jews In The Koran And Early Islamic Traditions - Lecture delivered in May 2003, Monash University, Melbourne
- ↑ 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 Itamar Marcus - Islam's War Against the Jews: Quotes from the Palestinian Authority - AISH
- ↑ Anti-Semitism in the Egyptian Media February 2001 - February 2002 - Anti Defamation League
- ↑ Malaysian Leader: 'Jews Rule World by Proxy' - Fox News, October 16, 2003
- ↑ Cleric Calls On Fellow muslim Obama To Blame 9/11 On The Jews - Live Leak
- ↑ Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad: On the Jews - Anti Defamation League, October 27, 2003
- ↑ Jeff Jacoby - Rousing Muslim bigotry - The Boston Globe, October 23, 2003
- ↑ 19.0 19.1 Sean O'Neill and John Steele - Mein Kampf for sale, in Arabic - The Telegraph, March 19, 2002
- ↑ Hitler's Mein Kampf In East Jerusalem And PA Territories - MEMRI: Special Dispatch, No. 48, October 1, 1999
- ↑ 21.0 21.1 Antisemitism in the Turkish Media - MEMRI - April 28, 2005
- ↑ The Protocols of the Elders of Zion - MEMRI TV
- ↑ Robert T. Carroll - Protocols of the Elders of Zion - The Skeptic's Dictionary
- ↑ Protocols Recycled - Anti-Defamation League, January 9, 2004
- ↑ Charles Lewis - Saudis export anti-Christian and anti-Jewish textbooks across the world: report - National Post, September 28, 2011
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance - Freedom House, May 2006, pp.24-25.
- ↑ Report: Anti-Semitism up - JTA, April 11, 2010
- ↑ Haviv Rettig Gur - Anti-Semitic violence doubled in 2009 - The Jerusalem Post, April 12, 2010
- ↑ Islam and antisemitism - Wikipedia, accessed September 17, 2010
- ↑ MEG BORTIN - Poll Finds Discord Between the Muslim and Western Worlds - The New York Times, June 23, 2006
- ↑ Poll: Jordan top anti-Jew nation; Russia most pro-Christian - World Tribune, September 19, 2005
- ↑ Karel Berkhout - Anti-Semitism on the rise in Amsterdam - NRC, 26 January 2010
- ↑ Barry Rubin - Belgium: Half of All Muslim Immigrant Children Are Antisemitic - Right Side News, May 17, 2011
- ↑ Poll of Muslim as well as non-Muslim Swedes regarding anti-Semitism - Iceviking, October 28, 2006 (original non-translated study)
- ↑ Nick Meo - Jews leave Swedish city after sharp rise in anti-Semitic hate crimes - The Telegraph, February 21, 2010
- ↑ Don Feder - Society For Voluntary Jewish Extinction Fights Islamophobia Society For Voluntary Jewish Extinction Fights Islamophobia - GrassTopsUSA, September 20, 2010
- ↑  - The Times Online, February 07, 2006
- ↑ 'Wave of hatred' warning as attacks on Jews hits record high - The Daily Mail, February 1, 2007
- ↑ A repetitive example can be found here: 
- ↑ http://ireport.cnn.com/docs/DOC-1204985
- ↑ Bukhari 1250 is misquoted here: . The site quotes Sahih Muslim correctly but ignores this hadith from the same book, where Muhammad says the dead Jew is being punished eternally.
- ↑ http://seekershub.org/ans-blog/2011/02/11/is-it-true-that-someone-threw-trash-on-the-prophet-peace-and-blessings-of-allah-be-upon-him/
- ↑ http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/index.php?page=showfatwa&Option=FatwaId&Id=283960