Vědecké chyby v Koránu

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Zpráva od vševědoucí bytosti by neměla obsahovat žádné chyby, nebo informace, které jsou v rozporu se známými fakty o vesmíru. Pokud by ve svaté knize Islámu existovala jediná chyba, tak tvrzení o božím autorství a neomylnosti nejsou pravdivá. Objektivní zhodnocení Koránu ukázalo početné vědecké a historické chyby a před-vědecký pohled na svět na úrovni 7. století.

Někteří budou oponovat těmto početným chybám v Koránu, že je to metafora nebo, že to má jiný význam nebo fenomenologickou interpretací textu. I za předpokladu existence alternativních vysvětlení pro každou chybu, stále zůstává problém v tom, že Korán neobsahuje žádné zjevné snahy odlišit své chápání přírodního světa a historických události od lokálního folklóru a mylných koncepci lidí žijících v Arábii v 7. století. Všemocný, vševědoucí, dokonalý sdělovatel by byl schopen předpovědět, jak taková zavádějící sdělení budou pochopena budoucími generacemi a jaké pochyby a zmatky způsobí. Tato obrovská slabost v Koránu, když bychom očekávali dokonalost, je již sama dostatečným důvodem odmítnout jakékoliv tvrzení o božím autorství.

Contents

Astronomie

Geocentrismus

The Qur'an mentions a few times that the sun and the moon travel in an orbit (falak - a rounded course), but does not mention once that the Earth does too. This is consistent with an Earth-centered (geocentric) view of the cosmos that places a motionless Earth at the center of the universe and all "heavenly bodies" travel around the Earth. This was the prevailing understanding of the universe prior to the 16th century when Copernicus helped explain and popularize a sun-centered (heliocentric) view of the universe. Tellingly, the sun's orbit is almost always mentioned in the context of night and day (13:2 is the only exception) and is always mentioned with that of the moon, which does in fact orbit the Earth each month, and to a naive observer seems to traverse the sky each night when it is visible.


A token unto them is night. We strip it of the day, and lo! they are in darkness. And the sun runneth on unto a resting-place for him. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Wise. And for the moon We have appointed mansions till she return like an old shrivelled palm-leaf. It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.
Qur'an 36:37-40

This is in a passage about night and day. Right after describing the change from day to night, it says that the sun runs on to a resting place for it (لِمُسْتَقَرٍّ لَّهَا). There are also sahih hadith (Sahih Muslim 1:297) that mention the sun's daily cycle using the same Arabic word to mean a resting place, which is underneath Allah's throne, and is where each night the sun prostrates and is asked to go and rise 'from its rising place' (مِنْ مَطْلِعِهَا). This cycle repeats, until one day Allah asks the sun to rise 'from your setting place' (مِنْ َغْرِبِكِ).

The alternative view was that it refers to the sun's final resting on the last day. Other verses talk about the sun swimming for a 'term appointed' (using a different arabic word). Another version of the above hadith probably supports this view (for details of all these things see footnotes in the main article). Whichever interpretation was intended, the sun's movement is nevertheless mentioned right after describing day and night, just as the next verse mentions the different mansions appointed for the moon each night. The whole passage is about day and night and the sun and moon's movement in that context.


And He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They float, each in an orbit.

Some try to explain away the above Qur'anic description of the sun moving in an orbit as a reference to our sun orbiting the black hole at the center of the milky way galaxy every 225 million years. This is an Ad hoc hypothesis, of no relevance to human time scales, and nothing from the text implies that the sun is orbiting anything other than the Earth. If the author had knowledge of the sun orbiting a black hole then it is conspicuous that he never mentions it explicitly nor in any way differentiates the sun's orbit from that of the moon.

Hast thou not seen how Allah causeth the night to pass into the day and causeth the day to pass into the night, and hath subdued the sun and the moon (to do their work), each running unto an appointed term; and that Allah is Informed of what ye do?

Notice also that the running / floating of the sun is something that the author expects people to have seen (another problem for the galactic orbit interpretation).

By the Sun and his (glorious) splendour; By the Moon as she follows him;
Qur'an 91:1-2}

The Arabic word translated "follow" is primarily defined as to follow, go or walk behind, follow in way of immitation, of action etc. and was often used for animals like camels following behind each other. Yet the Moon does not actually follow behind the sun's movement, nor does it provide its own light like the sun. The verse is most suggestive of a worldview in which the moon and sun traverse the same or similar paths after one another, which is what a 7th century person might believe from observing the sky. A less suspicious choice of word would have been better for a supposedly perfect book if it merely meant the sun and moon appear one after the other. One day instead of following the sun, the moon will by joined with it according to another verse (see the Similar Size and Distance of the Sun and Moon section below).

Abraham said, ‘Indeed Allah brings the sun from the east; now you bring it from the west.’ So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment], and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

Here the Qur'an quotes a few lines from a debate between Abraham and a disbelieving King, where Abraham replies that Allah 'brings the sun' (yatee biashshamsi يَأْتِى بِٱلشَّمْسِ) from the east. The arabic verb and preposition indicates that the sun actually moves. The verb means to come, and when it has an object with the bi preposition it means to bring, as in many other instances in the Qur'an. While the story is quoting a mere human's words, the author clearly believes it to be a good response and sees no problem with it.

Místo západu a východu Slunce

The Qur'an assumes a flat earth which has physical places into which the sun sets and rises from. Since the earth is a rotating sphere, the sun does not set in any particular place and you can never travel to "the spot" where the sun sets nor a place where it rises; the sun appears to set or rise on the horizon no matter where you are on the planet. In these verses, the author propagates a popular legend from the 7th century of a man named Dhu'l-Qarnayn who visits the places where the sun sets and rises; here he finds the sun going down into a muddy spring and later rising on a tribe with no coverings.

Till, when he reached the setting-place of the sun, he found it setting in a muddy spring, and found a people thereabout. We said: O Dhu'l-Qarneyn! Either punish or show them kindness.
Till, when he reached the rising-place of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had appointed no shelter therefrom.

Centuries after Muhammad lived, people with better astronomical knowledge than him started to come up with creative interpretations of these verses to say that Dhu'l-Qrnayn only traveled until he reached "the west" or to a spot "at the time" when the sun set and not the "place" where the sun set. Unfortunately, these alternative interpretations are severely undermined by the context and Arabic words used in these verses, which instead point to a physical location. There is plenty of evidence showing that the early Muslims understood the verse in this straightforward way. Again, we must ask why an all-knowing being would use such misleading verses that mimic the misconceptions and legends prevalent at the time if one of these alternative explanations is correct.

Meteory jsou hvězdy házené po ďáblech

The Qur'an says that stars (kawakib ٱلْكَوَاكِبِ) / lamps (masabih مَصَٰبِيحَ) adorn the heavens and guard against devils.

The author of the Qur'an does not seem to know the difference between stars (giant balls of gas thousands of times larger than the earth) and meteors which are small rocky masses of debris which brighten up after entering the earth's atmosphere. Many ancient people confused the two, as meteors look like stars that are streaking across the sky; this is why there were often called shooting stars or falling stars. In the following verse, the Qur'an claims that Allah uses stars as missiles to ward away devils. This repeats a common Arab myth at the time the Qur'an was first recited.

We have indeed decked the lower heaven with beauty (in) the stars, (For beauty) and for guard against all obstinate rebellious evil spirits, (So) they should not strain their ears in the direction of the Exalted Assembly but be cast away from every side, Repulsed, for they are under a perpetual penalty,Save him who snatcheth a fragment, Except such as snatch away something by stealth, and they are pursued by a flaming fire, of piercing brightness.

The same Arabic words are used at the start of verse 67:5 as in 37.6 (زَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنْيَا), except the stars are described as lamps. Clearly the lamps that 'beautify the heaven' refer to stars (and perhaps also the 5 visible planets), which are always there. Meteors are generally not much larger than grains of sand and are only visible for a second when they burn up, generating light in the Earth's atmosphere after millions of years in darkness, but the author of the Qur'an believes that meteors (the 'missiles') are a kind of star.

And verily We have beautified the world's heaven with lamps, and We have made them missiles for the devils, and for them We have prepared the doom of flame.


In Sahih Muslim we have a hadith confirming that the pursuing flames / missiles in the two verses refer to what we would call meteors which they saw shooting across the sky.

'Abdullah. Ibn 'Abbas reported: A person from the Ansar who was amongst the Companions of Allah's Messenger (pbuh reported to me: As we were sitting during the night with Allah's Messenger (pbuh), a meteor shot gave a dazzling light. Allah's Messenger (pbuh) said: What did you say in the pre-Islamic days when there was such a shot (of meteor)? They said: Allah and His Messenger know best (the actual position), but we, however, used to say that that very night a great man had been born and a great man had died, whereupon Allah's Messenger pbuh) said: (These meteors) are shot neither at the death of anyone nor on the birth of anyone. Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, issues Command when He decides to do a thing. Then (the Angels) supporting the Throne sing His glory, then sing the dwellers of heaven who are near to them until this glory of God reaches them who are in the heaven of this world. Then those who are near the supporters of the Throne ask these supporters of the Throne: What your Lord has said? And they accordingly inform them what He says. Then the dwellers of heaven seek information from them until this information reaches the heaven of the world. In this process of transmission (the jinn snatches) what he manages to overhear and he carries it to his friends. And when the Angels see the jinn they attack them with meteors. If they narrate only which they manage to snatch that is correct but they alloy it with lies and make additions to it.

Země a nebe stvořeny za šest dní

The Earth first formed around 9 billion years after the Big Bang. The Qur'an, however, repeats the prevailing Middle-Eastern myth that the Earth and universe were formed in six days.

In the hundreds of other Qur'anic verses where the Arabic word 'yawm' appears, everyone understands it to mean day. Yet Islamic websites try and rescue the Qur'an by pointing to an alternative meaning of yawm, which almost always means 'day', but can sometimes mean 'time period'. Curiously, and rather conveniently, yawm is only claimed to mean time period in the verses about the creation of the world. Clearly, the predominant meaning of the word is day and when a specific number is used, in this case six, the word almost always means a literal day. Again, nothing in the context of the verses, nor the Qur'an in general, suggests awareness that the universe or Earth were formed over long time periods. The author makes precisely zero attempt to distingish his description from the prevailing Middle-Eastern creation myths in this regard, which feature six literal days of creation ("Evening came and morning came: The first day." - Genesis 1:5).

Secondly, neither the universe nor Earth were formed in six distinct long periods of time. It would have been trivial for an all-knowing diety to have indicated the vast duration in which the universe has developed, which has taken place over the past 13.8 billion years.

We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in Six Days, nor did any sense of weariness touch Us

The Earth specifically was created in two days according to the Qur'an, and in four days (on days three and four according to the tafsirs) were created mountains and the sustenance of the Earth.

Say: Is it that ye deny Him Who created the earth in two Days? And do ye join equals with Him? He is the Lord of (all) the Worlds. He set on the (earth), mountains standing firm, high above it, and bestowed blessings on the earth, and measure therein all things to give them nourishment in due proportion, in four Days, in accordance with (the needs of) those who seek (Sustenance).

Mountains in fact continue to rise and erode to this day. Similarly, living things and their sustenance continue to evolve, yet the Qur'an says that the creation of mountains and sustenance occurred in a specific period that ended two days before the creation of the universe was completed. See the next section regarding the final two of the six days in 41:11-12 which immediately follow the verses shown above.

Země stvořena před hvězdami

The author of the Qur'an is also unaware that the elements in the Earth's crust and core were first formed in stars by nucleosynthesis. When those stars exploded as supernovas, they expelled the elements that were used in future solar systems such as our own. Yet the Qur'an describes the Earth being formed before the stars. All rocky and gaseous planets in the universe were formed in a similar manner to the Earth and the Qur'an singling out the Earth only further highlights the author's ignorance of the history of the formation of celestial objects.

Verse 41:12 says that lamps (or more specifically, stars in the similar verse Quran 37:6) were placed in the lowest of the seven heavens. But before there were seven heavens, while heaven was just smoke, the Earth already existed according to verse 11, and the Earth's creation in the preceeding days is described in verses 9-10 already discussed in the previous section.

Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.

The verse below further confirms that heaven was only made into seven heavens when the Earth already existed according to the Qur'an.

He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.

Some websites attempt to reconcile the Qur'anic description with modern science by denying that the word 'Then' in the verses above indicate sequence, and instead claim that it means 'moreover'. They claim this despite the fact that these words (thumma in 41:11 and 2:29, and fa in 41:12 - all translated as 'Then') generally are used to indicate sequence. In other contexts thumma was sometimes used to mean 'moreover', which is generally clear from those contexts, but the passages quoted above describe a process - the creation of the heavens and Earth, and it would be ludicrous to use these words when describing such a process if they were not indicating sequence.

Země a obloha byly odtrženy

Some websites claim that the following verse is compatible with the Big Bang theory. But according to this theory, the Universe was formed about 13.8 billion years ago due to a rapid expansion from singularity. The earth was formed 4.54 billion years ago from accretion of debris that surrounded the precursor of the Sun. There was no "separation" of the "joined" earth and heavens as this verse suggests. It is, in fact, a repetition of cosmic egg myths in which an egg-like structure was split into two halves, the lower half forming the earth and the upper half forming the heaven.

Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?

There is no scientific theory in which the Earth and heavens were split apart from each other. To imagine that this describes the big bang, the atomic particles that would later form the Earth would at the beginning have to be separated from those that would go on to form everything else in the universe. This bears no resemblance to scientific cosmology, wherein the material that forms the Earth passed through at least one earlier generation of star, and more recently was part of various asteroids, comets and planetesimals orbiting the sun (which could all be described as being in the 'heavens') that sometimes collided and merged with each other, sometimes split apart, and gradually coalesced under gravity to form the Earth and other planets.

Moreover, the very next verse Quran 21:31 speaks of mountains being placed on the Earth. Here 'the Earth' clearly means an actual world, so how do the Islamic websites expect anyone to believe that in the previous verse 'the Earth' refers merely to atomic particles at the time of the big bang that would billions of years later form the Earth?

Vesmír byl stvořen z kouře

Looking once again at the verses discussed above, it is worth pointing out that there was no stage of formation of the Universe that involved smoke (carbon particles suspended as a result of combustion; the word translated smoke is the noun dukhan دُخَانٍ, which literally means smoke, as from a fire). Nor did the Earth and heavens each "come" as separate entites at any point of time. Earth is a part of this Universe and has developed within it.

Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke, and said unto it and unto the earth: Come both of you, willingly or loth. They said: We come, obedient. Then He ordained them seven heavens in two Days and inspired in each heaven its mandate; and We decked the nether heaven with lamps, and rendered it inviolable. That is the measuring of the Mighty, the Knower.

Apologetics that try to reinterpret 'smoke' as the primordial state of the universe after the big bang should notice (aside from their poor grasp of science) that the Qur'an indicates a time when just the heaven, but not Earth is smoke. Furthermore, the Earth and its mountains are clearly mentioned as already existing in the previous two verses (Quran 41:9-10 discussed above).

Sedm Zemí

This verse claims there are seven Earths.

Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know that Allah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge.

A hadith reveals that these are seven Earths stacked above each other.

The Prophet said, "Whoever takes a piece of the land of others unjustly, he will sink down the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.

The number, like seven heavens, might have come from a misunderstanding of mythology from classical antiquity in which there were seven moving planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the sun and moon). If instead we take it to mean seven actual planets the Qur'an is still wrong. According to astronomers, there are eight ordinary planets and five dwarf planets, which leaves the grand total at thirteen in our solar system. Modern astronomy also has found thousands of other planets in other solar systems and Cosmologists estimate that hundreds of billions of stars and planets exist in the universe. The author of the Qur'an singling out such a small number of celestial objects only reaffirms his ignorance of the makeup of the universe.

Sedm nebí

The universe consists of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each with hundreds of billions of stars. There is no such thing as seven layers to the universe. This myth of seven heavens was a common idea prevalent in the Middle East during the time when the Qur'an was first recited.

See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens one above another

Some Islamic websites claim that these are seven layers of the atmosphere, despite the fact that verse 37:6 (see next section) says that stars are in the nearest heaven. There are only 5 not 7 principal layers to the Earth's atmosphere, and likewise only 5 not 7 major layers to the Earth itself.

Hvězdy se nacházejí v nejbližším nebi

Stars are spread throughout the Universe and there is no such thing as the "nearest" heaven or layer. Also, this verse is in keeping with the author's claim (Quran 71:15 as described above) that the seven heavens are arranged one above the other.

Surely We have adorned the nearest heaven with an adornment, the stars

Podobná velikost a vzdálenost Slunce a Měsíce

The Qur'an has statements about the end of the world that are much as one would expect if the author believed the sun and moon to be of similar size and a similar distance from Earth.

And the moon darkens And the sun and the moon are joined,
Qur'an 75:8-9

The word translated "are joined" is Arabic jumi'a, a verb which means to collect together, gather together, bring together. Given that this would actually require the moon to travel 98 million miles away from Earth and into the sun, which dwarfs it by over 600 times in diameter, it seems vastly less fitting as an apocalyptic event than if the ancient conception of the cosmos was correct. Thus it is far more likely that the author had such a misconception about the sun and moon.

Světlo měsíce

A popular claim is that the Qur'an has knowledge that the moon does not emit its own light, but simply reflects light coming from the Sun. The Arabic word for reflected (in`ikaas) does not appear in the two Qur'anic verses that say the Moon is a "light". It instead uses the word "noor" (nooran نُورًا) which simply means a light, and in another verse, muneer (muneeran مُّنِيرًا), which means giving light and is from the same root as noor. This is vague enough to be interpreted either way, so is not necessarily an error, but nor can any special knowledge be claimed.

He it is Who appointed the sun a splendour and the moon a light, and measured for her stages, that ye might know the number of the years, and the reckoning. Allah created not (all) that save in truth. He detaileth the revelations for people who have knowledge.
And hath made the moon a light therein, and made the sun a lamp?

Noor appears again (this time as a participle muneeran مُّنِيرًا) in a similar verse about the moon:

Blessed be He Who hath placed in the heaven mansions of the stars, and hath placed therein a great lamp and a moon giving light!"

Perhaps the best example of a verse showing the noor simply means light and not reflected light can be found in 33:45-46 in which a lamp is shining light with the exact same Arabic word as in 25:61 above (muneeran مُّنِيرًا):

O Prophet! Lo! We have sent thee as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And as a summoner unto Allah by His permission, and as a lamp that giveth light.

In Lane's Lexicon of classical arabic, this word muneer (مُّنِيرً) is defined as 'Giving light, shining bright, bright, or shining brightly'. Noor is defined on the previous page as 'Light; whatever it may be; and the rays thereof'. In reference to Qur'an verse 10:5 (quoted above) that describe the moon with this word, he says, 'In the Kur. x. 5, the sun is termed ضياء and the moon نور and it is said that ضياء is essential, but نور is accidental [light]'. It is important to note that this notion of essential and accidental light and its application to the sun and moon originates not from the Arabs at the time of the Qur'an, but rather from the book Kitab al-Manazir, commonly known as 'Optics', published in 1572 by the great polymath and optics pioneer al-Hazen. Lane goes on to say, citing the highly regarded Taj al-Arus classical dictionary, 'it is of two kinds, the light of the present world and that of the world to come; and the former is either perceived sensibly, by the eye, and this is what diffuses itself from luminous bodies, as the sun and moon and stars, and is mentioned in the Kur. x. 5 referred to above'.

The word "Noor" is also used in this verse to show that Allah is the "light" of the universe. Clearly the author is not implying that Allah reflects light from another source but is the source of the light.

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The Parable of His Light is as if there were a Niche and within it a Lamp: the Lamp enclosed in Glass: the glass as it were a brilliant star: Lit from a blessed Tree, an Olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! Allah doth guide whom He will to His Light: Allah doth set forth Parables for men: and Allah doth know all things.

Měsíc byl rozpůlen

The Qur'an and Hadith claim that the moon was miraculously split into two pieces and then, presumably, put back together again. There is absolutely no scientific evidence whatsoever that the moon has ever been split into two. Since the moon is visible to half the planet at any given time, we should expect to see numerous accounts from different parts of the world attesting to this event if it actually happened. The Romans, Greeks, Egyptians, Persians, Chinese and Indians had avid astronomers who should have seen this event and recorded it in their histories. The absence of historical record from other civilizations, contemporary to Muhammad, is a strong indication that this event never happened.

The hour drew nigh and the moon did rend asunder.
Narrated Anas: "That the Meccan people requested Allah's Apostle to show them a miracle, and so he showed them the splitting of the moon."

Nebe je stan/kupole

A common myth at the time of the Quran's composition was that the sky or heavens were held up with pillars. Many Bedouin people living in Arabia imagined the sky as a large tent covering, similar to the tents they used. The author repeats this myth by describing the sky as being "raised" above the earth.

Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy
Allah is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that ye can see

In another verse, the author says that the sky / heaven is a covering that can be removed.

And when the sky is stripped away

Nebe je střežená klenba

This verse seems to relate to the verses about devils chased by shooting stars (meteors) that guard the lowest heaven. See for example Quran 37:6-10 discussed above, in which we find a noun meaning guard from the same Arabic root (hafiza) as the verb in this verse). Somewhat ironically, the things supposedly guarding the sky / heaven can actually pose a threat to living things on Earth.

Asteroids and meteorites have penetrated the atmosphere and hit the earth throughout the course of history. This includes the massive meteorite that hit near the Yucatán Peninsula 65 million years which killed off numerous species including most dinosaurs.

And We have made the heaven a guarded canopy and (yet) they turn aside from its signs.

Nebe může spadnout na lidi

The Qur'an author thought that the sky/heaven is like a ceiling held up by Allah that can fall to earth or fragments break off and fall on someone. This is obviously impossible as the earth's atmosphere is simply made of gas and outer space is not a solid object.

And if they were to see a fragment of the heaven falling, they would say: A heap of clouds.
See they not what is before them and behind them, of the sky and the earth? If We wished, We could cause the earth to swallow them up, or cause a piece of the sky to fall upon them. Verily in this is a Sign for every devotee that turns to Allah (in repentance).
Hast thou not seen how Allah hath made all that is in the earth subservient unto you? And the ship runneth upon the sea by His command, and He holdeth back the heaven from falling on the earth unless by His leave. Lo! Allah is, for mankind, Full of Pity, Merciful.

Nebe může být srolováno

This is another verse implying that the sky or heaven is something solid.

The Day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll.

Hvězdy spadnou

The Qur'an says that the stars will fall (inkadarat ٱنكَدَرَتْ) along with other dramatic events surrounding the last day. The author clearly had no idea of the size and distance of the stars. The word كدر in the form used in this verse (form VII) meant to dart down as is said of a bird or hawk, or to fall and scatter.

And when the stars fall

The structure of space-time is such that nothing, not even stars, can move faster than the velocity of light. Even if stars were to somehow move close to light speed across the sky their motion would be imperceivable to the naked eye as many visible stars are hundreds of light years away. Neither would we be able to see anything that the stars are doing recently (when we see a star 100 light years away, we are seeing it as it was 100 years ago).

Příčina změny délky stínů

Shadows are produced when the sun's light is blocked by an obstacle. It is the Earth's rotation that causes these shadows to change size and lengthen. However, verse 25:45 seems to say that the reason that shadows lengthen rather than being stationary is because Allah has made the sun their guide. Yet if the Earth did not rotate (so shadows were stationary) and then the Earth was made to rotate (so that they could lengthen and draw in) the sun would not need to be made to do anything different in either case. Thus the most likely explanation is that the verse represents a geocentric worldview where the sun moves across the sky, guiding the shadows.

Hast thou not turned thy vision to thy Lord?- How He doth prolong the shadow! If He willed, He could make it stationary! then do We make the sun its guide; Then We draw it in towards Ourselves,- a contraction by easy stages.

Then the next verse, 25:46, says that shadows are drawn towards Allah which has no scientific meaning.

Nevědomost o existenci severního a jižního pólu

In polar regions, the longevity of day and night vary during summer and winter. The day gets shorter and shorter in winter until there are days or weeks of uninterrupted night. At the poles themselves, day and night alternately last for six months and all phases of the moon occur several times between sunrise and sunset. The author of the Qur'an did not know about this and he only repeated earlier geocentric ideas. See also the Fasting and Prayer Requirements Near the Poles section below.

It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor doth the night outstrip the day. They float each in an orbit.

Furthermore, when reading this verse one should wonder in what sense day and night each have an orbit. See Geocentrism and the Quran regarding that question.

Biologie

Evoluce

The Qur'an presupposes a creationist view of life on earth. Its understanding of the history of human life is incompatible with the overwhelming scientific evidence that humans have evolved from prior life forms, over the course of millions of years, through natural selection [1]. While some Muslims accept the theory of evolution, most reject it in favor of a creationist world view. Opinion polls show that the majority of Muslims agree Islam and evolution are not compatible.

Stvoření člověka z hlíny

The Qur’an states that man was created instantaneously from clay (salsalin صَلْصَٰلٍ) / mud (hamain حَمَإٍ). There is no indication that the author is aware of the evolution of human life over millions of years nor our common ancestry with apes and primates.

We created man from sounding clay, from mud molded into shape;

Similarly, it says that the first man was created from dust (turabin تُرَابٍ).

Lo! the likeness of Jesus with Allah is as the likeness of Adam. He created him of dust, then He said unto him: Be! and he is.

První lidé: Adam a Eva

The Qur’an and Hadith contains stories concerning the 'first humans' and how all people are descended from these two earliest ancestors. It states that humans were created in a garden (paradise) and then brought to earth fully formed. This view of the origins of human life is clearly contradicted by DNA evidence and the numerous fossils of pre-homosapien species that lived on earth for millions of years before modern humans first evolved.[2]

"He it is Who created you from a single being, and of the same (kind) did He make his mate,"

Another verse is clear on literal descent of humanity from one man by sexual means (i.e. semen) after Allah had created him out of clay.

Who made all things good which He created, and He began the creation of man from clay; Then He made his seed from a draught of despised fluid;

The word translated “seed” in Pickthall’s translation is nasl نسل, which means progeny (i.e. descendants).

Some Muslim creationists will claim the view of two ancestral “parents” is consistent with recent scientific findings that show a common female and male ancestor of all modern humans. They often exploit the confusion caused by scientists referring to these genetic ancestors as Mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal Adam. These two individuals bear little resemblance to the Quranic account as they are simply the last common male and female ancestors of everyone alive today, not of all humans in history. The Qur'an clearly states Eve was created later than Adam, however Mitochondrial Eve lived some 50,000 to 80,000 years earlier than Y-chromosomal Adam.[3] Genetic evidence overwhelmingly indicates that humans diverged from earlier species as a population, not a single couple. [4].

Embryologie

The Qur'an and Hadith contain statements about bodily fluids and the stages of development of the human embryo. Many of these descriptions are vague and unscientific. Most bear a striking resemblance to similar descriptions found in the Jewish Talmud and the ideas of ancient Greeks such as Galen, including their errors.

Sperma se vytváří mezi páteří a žebry

The Qur'an states, incorrectly, that semen originates from a spot between the backbone and ribs. Today we know sperm comes from the testicles and semen from various glands behind and below the bladder, which is not between the spine and ribs.

He is created from a drop emitted- Proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs

Embryo je na začátku zformováno ze semena

The author of the Qur'an describes the initial formation of a human embryo out of fluid emanating from the man (and possibly also of the woman), which is stored in the womb. This reflects the contemporary, but incorrect, view that the material for the embryo is initially formed out of semen, as taught by Hippocrates, Galen, and the Jewish Talmud. In fact, semen is the vehicle for the sperm cells, one of which fuses with a woman's ovum in her fallopian tube, and the resulting cell divides and travels back into the womb for implantation.

While English translations mention a "drop of seed", or "drop of sperm", the Arabic word in question is nutfah, which literally means a small amount of liquid, a euphemism for semen.

Did We not create you from a liquid disdained? And We placed it in a firm lodging For a known extent.
Then placed him as a drop (of seed) [nutfah] in a safe lodging;
From what thing doth He create him? From a drop of seed [nutfah]. He createth him and proportioneth him
Indeed, We created man from a sperm-drop mixture [nutfatin amshajin] that We may try him; and We made him hearing and seeing.

Ženské vajíčko nebylo zmíněno

The Qur'an's author did not mention the role of the ovum in human reproduction and appears to have no knowledge of it. This verse fails to mention the important role of the female egg, or ovum, plays in the reproduction of humankind. It implies that reproduction is caused simply by the male semen. The human ovum is very small, though visible to the human eye, and it's purpose wasn't understood in the 7th century. Again, we are left wondering why an all-knowing deity would omit such information.

He is created from a drop emitted

Lidé stvoření ze sraženiny krve

The Qur'an and Hadith depict that humans are formed from a clot of blood. There was never a stage in embryonic development where humans are formed into a clot of blood. This description is likely influenced by an unscientific and primitive understanding of human reproduction based on observations from an early-term miscarriage and a woman's menstrual cycle. While in modern times some Muslims seek to use alternative meanings for the relevant word, the mere fact that it certainly can mean clotted blood (as also is the consensus of the classical tafsirs), in a passage about a biological process (formation of a baby), is a major weakness in what should be a perfect description.

Created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Mus'ud: “Allah's Apostle, the true and truly inspired said, "(The matter of the Creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period.”

Pohlaví dítěte je rozhodnuto poté co se stane sraženinou

The Qur'an says that an embryo is transformed from a sperm to a clot, then it is shaped, and then the male or female sex is determined. Modern genetics has shown that the sex of a human is decided at the moment of conception.[1]

Was he not a drop of fluid which gushed forth? Then he became a clot; then (Allah) shaped and fashioned And made of him a pair, the male and female.

While translators mostly use "And" in verse 39, the Arabic word is fa, as also in the previous conjunction, which indicates sequence (i.e. 'and then'). The tafsirs also take this view, and it is very much reflected in a sahih hadith found in Bukhari and Muslim:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "At every womb Allah appoints an angel who says, 'O Lord! A drop of semen, O Lord! A clot. O Lord! A little lump of flesh." Then if Allah wishes (to complete) its creation, the angel asks, (O Lord!) Will it be a male or female, a wretched or a blessed, and how much will his provision be? And what will his age be?' So all that is written while the child is still in the mother's womb."

Kosti se zformují před masem

The Qur'an explains that the bones of a human embryo are formed first and then covered up with flesh. Modern scientific studies and research have shown that the cartilage models and muscles start to form at the same time and in parallel. Muscles have started to form before the cartilage models start to be replaced with bone.

Then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a (foetus) lump; then we made out of that lump bones then (not and) clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature. So blessed be Allah, the best to create!

The Qur'an again parallels the influential Greek physician Galen, who says:

And now the third period of gestation has come. After nature has made outlines of all the organs and the substance of the semen is used up, the time has come for nature to articulate the organs precisely and to bring all the parts to completion. Thus it caused flesh to grow on and around all the bones...
Galen, On semen, p.101

Všechny organismy jsou stvořeny v párech

Not every creature procreates or reproduces through male and female sexual relationship. The whiptail lizard in the U.S. Southwest, Mexico, and South America, is an all-females species which reproduces by parthenogenesis. Viruses reproduce using a host's DNA and are neither female nor male. Bacteria reproduce by cell division. Fungus can reproduce either sexually or asexually. Many species of plants also reproduce either asexually or through pollination.

And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye may receive instruction.
Glory to Allah, Who created in pairs all things that the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of which they have no knowledge.

Plod ve třech vrstvách temnoty

The word butun (بطن) means belly/abdomen/midriff, though some translators like to use the more specific word "womb". Tafsirs interpreted the "three darknesses" as the placenta, womb (uterus) and belly. There are in fact many more layers in the human body such as the endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium, peritoneum, besides the cervix uteri, corpus uteri, abdomen (with walls), and placenta (with layers). The idea of three membranes around the fetus (chorion, allantois, and amnion) was taught by the highly influential Greek physician, Galen. Perhaps the Qur'anic author is simply repeating this idea, which applies only to the embryonic membranes.

The allantois is a sac-like structure which becomes part of the umbilical cord, hardly a 'a darkness' for the embryo. The other two membranes, the chorion and amnion, together form the amniotic sac, which is quite thin and transparent.

He created you from one soul. Then He made from it its mate, and He produced for you from the grazing livestock eight mates. He creates you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, within three darknesses. That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs dominion. There is no deity except Him, so how are you averted?

Funkce srdce

In several verses, the Qur'an ascribes understanding and thinking to the heart instead of the brain.

And We place upon their hearts veils lest they should understand it, and in their ears a deafness; and when thou makest mention of thy Lord alone in the Qur'an, they turn their backs in aversion.
Lo! now they fold up their breasts that they may hide (their thoughts) from Him. At the very moment when they cover themselves with their clothing, Allah knoweth that which they keep hidden and that which they proclaim. Lo! He is Aware of what is in the breasts (of men).

Zdroj a čistota mléka

The Qur'an states that milk is produced, in the body, somewhere between excretions and blood. The mammary glands, where milk is produced and stored, are nowhere near the intestines which is where excrement is stored. Many kinds of cattle and goat milk needs processing or pasteurization before they can safely be consumed; the milk is often infected with bacteria and other micro-organisms. A significant number of humans are lactose intolerant and unable to digest milk without experiencing abdominal bloating and cramps, flatulence, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. This makes the Qur'anic claim that milk is 'pure' and 'agreeable' to those who drink it dubious.

And verily in cattle (too) will ye find an instructive sign. From what is within their bodies between excretions and blood, We produce, for your drink, milk, pure and agreeable to those who drink it.

Geologie a meteorologie

Země je placatá

Obracení se k Mekce

The Qur'an tells all Muslims to face in the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca when they pray. However, even if you suppose that alligning yourself with a great circle around the globe counts as facing the direction of Mecca, you are simultaneously facing opposite its direction as the circle can be traced behind you. Even worse, on the opposite side of the Earth every direction is equally facing towards and away from Mecca. Astronauts in Earth orbit or (one day) on the Moon and Mars would require even more contrived solutions. The author here presupposes a small world, local to Arabia, that is flat. Only in that world view can people everywhere face Mecca.

From whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.

Požadavky na půst a modlitbu blízko pólům

The Qur'an commands Muslims to fast from eating and drinking from sunrise till sunset during Ramadan. The author of the Qur'an was apparently unfamiliar with the polar regions in which there are six months of sunlight and six months of perpetual night during Summer and Winter. Such fasting is not observable by anyone living in the polar regions, and very easy (depth of Winter) or extremely hard (height of Summer) in places within around 40 degrees latitude of the poles. Various contrived rules have been proposed by Muslim scholars for those at such latitudes to try to accommodate the inconvenient fact that we live on a round Earth.

...Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall...

A similar issue exists for the five daily prayers. Anyone living in the polar region would not be able to make a sunset or sunrise prayer for much of the year. Even for cities further south like Aberdeen in Scotland, the gap between the night prayer (Isha) and the dawn prayer (Fajr) is around 4 and a half hours in June, so anyone following these rules has to interupt their sleep around 3.20am, then go back to sleep before getting up for the day. Such issues would not have crossed the mind of a 7th century man in Arabia, who believed that everyone experiences sunrise and sunset when he does, and where it would be perfectly natural to arise at dawn any time of the year.

Establish regular prayers - at the sun's decline till the darkness of the night, and the morning prayer and reading: for the prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony.

Země je roztažena a plochá

The author of the Qur'an mentions to his audience that the Earth is 'spread out' and layed flat. The arabic word here (sataha) was used to describe making the flat top or roof of a house or chamber and making a top surface flat. Words from the same root mean the flat top surface or roof of a house or chamber, a flat plane in geometry, a level place upon which dates can be spread, a rolling pin (which expands the dough), plane or flat.

And at the Earth, how it is spread out?

The Qur'anic commentary of al-Jalalayn agrees with this understanding of the verse saying that most scholars at his time agree that the earth is flat and not spherical.

And the earth, how it was laid out flat?, and thus infer from this the power of God, exalted be He, and His Oneness? The commencing with the [mention of] camels is because they are closer in contact with it [the earth] than any other [animal]. As for His words sutihat, 'laid out flat', this on a literal reading suggests that the earth is flat, which is the opinion of most of the scholars of the [revealed] Law, and not a sphere as astronomers (ahl al-hay'a) have it, even if this [latter] does not contradict any of the pillars of the Law.

Země je koberec

The arabic word (bisaatan) used here means a thing that is spread or spread out or forth, and particularly a carpet.

And Allah has made the earth for you as a carpet (spread out)

Země je jako pohovka

The Earth is described using an arabic word (firashan) that means a thing that is spread on the ground to sit or lay upon.

[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him].

Ibn-Kathir in his Tafsir agrees with this interpretation that the earth is flat and comfortable like a bed.

who has made the earth as flat and comfortable as a bed and placed upon it mountains standing firm... (Tafsir Ibn Kathir (Part 1)
Ibn-Kathir

The same root word for couch in 2:22 is used as a verb in 51.48 in the sense of to spread (the first word translated spread here).

And the earth, We have spread it; how excellent (are) the Spreaders!

Země je postel

The Earth is described like a bed (or carpet in Yusuf Ali's translation) in verse 20:53, and similarly Quran 43:10. The arabic word (mahdan) suggests something completely flat and spread out on the ground and not rolled up for storage.

Who hath appointed the earth as a bed and hath threaded roads for you therein and hath sent down water from the sky and thereby We have brought forth divers kinds of vegetation

Sometimes the same Arabic word is translated as expanse as in this verse. Together with the next verse, the Earth is a thing spread out and pegged down by mountains.

Have We not made the earth as a wide expanse, And the mountains as pegs?

The same root word is used as a participle at the end of 51.48

And the earth, We have spread it; how excellent (are) the Spreaders!

Země byla roztažena

In the verse below, as also in Quran 13:3 and Quran 50:7, the Qur'an uses a verb (madadna) that meant to extend by drawing or pulling, stretch out, expand.

And the earth We have spread out (like a carpet); set thereon mountains firm and immovable; and produced therein all kinds of things in due balance.

Země je rovina

The Qur'an describes a time in the future when mountains will be removed. Verse 18:47 uses an arabic word (baarizatan) that means "entirely apparent" to describe the Earth at this time. Verse 20:106 uses words (qa'an and safsafan) that mean a level plain. This description assumes the Earth is already flat and level with only the mountains giving it shape. The author here appears to have no knowledge that the Earth is round and not level.

And (bethink you of) the Day when we remove the hills and ye see the earth emerging, and We gather them together so as to leave not one of them behind.
They will ask thee of the mountains (on that day). Say: My Lord will break them into scattered dust. And leave it as an empty plain, Wherein thou seest neither curve nor ruggedness.

Permanentní bariéra mezi sladkou a slanou vodou

When a fresh water river flows into the sea or ocean, there is a transition region in between. This transition region is called an estuary where the fresh water remains temporarily separated from the salt water. However, this separation is not absolute (thus cannot be described as a "barrier"), is not permanent, and the different salinity levels between the two bodies of water eventually homogenize. The Qur'an however erroneously says that the seperation between the two types of water is absolute and permanent.

It is He Who has let free the two bodies of flowing water: One palatable and sweet, and the other salt and bitter; yet has He made a barrier between them, a partition that is forbidden to be passed.

Hory zabraňují zemětřesením

Modern geology has discovered that large plates in the crust of the earth are responsible for the formation of mountains. Called Plate tectonic these massive plates meet and the pressure between them pushes up the crust forming mountains but also causing earthquakes and faults. the Qur'an propagates the idea that mountains are crucial in stabilizing the earth when, in fact, the earth would be much more stable and have less earthquakes if mountains did not exist.

And He has set up on the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads; that ye may guide yourselves

Hory zaraženy do Země

Mountains are usually formed through the movement of lithosphere plates. They were not thrown down into the earth.

And He hath cast into the earth firm hills that it quake not with you, and streams and roads that ye may find a way

The word he has cast is alqa (lam-qaf-ya), which in this form means to throw or cast down and is the same word used in 12:10 when Yusuf is cast down into the well, and in 20:20 when Moses casts down his staff, which becomes a snake.

Hruď se zmenšuje s nadmořskou výškou

This verse says that your chest cavity gets smaller with higher altitude when in reality the opposite is true.

Those whom Allah (in His plan) willeth to guide,- He openeth their breast to Islam; those whom He willeth to leave straying,- He maketh their breast close and constricted, as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth Allah (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe.

Zemětřesení jsou tresty od boha

Some of the highest death tolls from natural disasters in the last decade were in Muslim countries. In fact, natural disasters do not differentiate between Muslim or non-Muslim nations nor are they controlled by a divine being. Earth quakes are extremely common along tectonic fault lines and are not a punishment for human behavior but the byproduct of natural forces. The Qur'anic author perpetuates an unscientific understanding of his phenomena in there verses.

Do then those who devise evil (plots) feel secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them up, or that the Wrath will not seize them from directions they little perceive?
But they denied him, and the dreadful earthquake took them, and morning found them prostrate in their dwelling place.

Hurikány a vánice jsou tresty od boha

Two of the deadliest blizzards in history happened in Muslim countries. However, the Qur'an regards those natural disasters as violent punishment from God. Weather patterns follow predictable patterns and are not controlled by a divine being.

Do ye then feel secure that He will not cause you to be swallowed up beneath the earth when ye are on land, or that He will not send against you a violent tornado (with showers of stones) so that ye shall find no one to carry out your affairs for you

Dešťová voda je čistá

The Qur'an says rainwater is pure, though in some industrial areas rainwater can contain significant amounts of pollution and acidity. Called acid rain this type of rain causes harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and buildings.

And He it is Who sends the winds as good news before His mercy; and We send down pure water from the cloud,

Chybí vypařování v koloběhu vody

Every verse about rain in the Qur'an implies that rain comes either directly from the sky or from Allah. However the crucial step of evaporation of water into the air is conspicuously never mentioned, despite apologetics claiming that the water cycle is described in the Qur'an.

That sends down (from time to time) rain from the sky in due measure;- and We raise to life therewith a land that is dead; even so will ye be raised (from the dead)

Ledové hory na obloze

Hail forms in cumulonimbus clouds when updrafts raise water droplets to an altitude where they freeze. However, the Qur'anic author seems to have imagined mountain-like masses of hail in the sky / heaven.

Hast thou not seen how Allah wafteth the clouds, then gathereth them, then maketh them layers, and thou seest the rain come forth from between them; He sendeth down from the heaven mountains wherein is hail, and smiteth therewith whom He will, and averteth it from whom He will. The flashing of His lightning all but snatcheth away the sight.

Transliteration: wayunazzilu (and he sends down) mina (from) alssamai (the sky) min (from) jibalin (mountains) feeha (in it ['it' is feminine here so must refer to the sky]) min (of) baradin (hail)


Tafsirs such as Jalalayn and the one attributed to Ibn Abbas say that this means mountains in the sky. Ibn Kathir notes two views, that these are literally mountains of hail in the sky, or that they are a metaphor for clouds. Clouds could poetically be described as mountains in the sky, but for the verse to literally say "mountains of hail in the sky" strongly suggests large masses of ice (in the clouds or otherwise), and we can see it being understood in this literal way as evidenced in tafsirs.

Aláh používá blesky aby uděřil lidi

The Qur'anic author was superstitious about thunder and lightning and imagined that they strike those whom Allah wishes to smite.

And the thunder declares His glory with His praise, and the angels too for awe of Him; and He sends the thunderbolts and smites with them whom He pleases, yet they dispute concerning Allah, and He is mighty in prowess.

More light on this verse comes in the following hadith, graded hasan (good) by Dar-us-Salam. Muhammad believed the sound of thunder was an angel striking the clouds, which he drives along with a piece of fire.

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas: "The Jews came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said: 'O Abul-Qasim! Inform us about the thunder, what is it?' He said: 'An angel among the angels, who is responsible for the clouds. He has a piece of fire wherever that he drives the clouds wherever Allah wills.' They said: 'Then what is this noise we hear?' He said: 'It is him, striking the clouds when he drives them on, until it goes where it is ordered.' They said: 'You have told the truth.'

Zoologie

Mravenci rozpoznají lidi a mluví mezi sebou

Ants typically communicate with each other using pheromone which are a chemical signal. While scientists have also discovered that ants make some noises, nothing has ever indicated that the brains of ants could produce such complex communication as is depicted in the Quranic story of Solomon and the ants. However, the Qur'an tells us that not only does an ant warn her fellow ants of the approach of a large army of humans, but it recognizes one of the humans as Solomon. Then, he also understands her speech. How an ant could even see that far or have known the identify of Solomon is never explained. This account of a talking ant is clearly a legend and not scientific.

At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: "O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it." So he smiled, amused at her speech; and he said: "O my Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: And admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants."

Pouze čtyři / osm typů dobytka

While the Qur'an states that there are eight kinds of cattle for use by humans, In fact there are more than a dozen kinds of cattle. The word "cattle" in 39:6 is al-ana'ami, meaning pasturing (i.e. grazing) animals. The word azwajin ("kinds" in the translation of 39:6 below) generally means mate or member of a pair. Quran 6:143-144 clarifies that these refer to male and female pairs of sheep, goats, oxes and camels, so in fact the author of the Qur'an is aware only of four kinds of cattle useful for humans. This neglects other types of cattle from the regions outside of Arabia such as reindeer, which are important to people in northern latitudes.

He created you from one being, then from that (being) He made its mate; and He hath provided for you of cattle eight kinds. He created you in the wombs of your mothers, creation after creation, in a threefold gloom. Such is Allah, your Lord. His is the Sovereignty. There is no Allah save Him. How then are ye turned away
And of the cattle (He produceth) some for burdens, some for food. Eat of that which Allah hath bestowed upon you, and follow not the footsteps of the devil, for lo! he is an open foe to you. Eight pairs: Of the sheep twain, and of the goats twain. Say: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females, or that which the wombs of the two females contain? Expound to me (the case) with knowledge, if ye are truthful. And of the camels twain and of the oxen twain. Say: Hath He forbidden the two males or the two females, or that which the wombs of the two females contain; or were ye by to witness when Allah commanded you (all) this? Then who doth greater wrong than he who deviseth a lie concerning Allah, that he may lead mankind astray without knowledge. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.

Koně jsou stvoření jako transportace

It took thousands of years of domestication and cross-breeding before horses were domesticated approximately 4,000 years ago in East Europe and Central Asia. Prior to this, horses were wild animals though the Qur'an neglects to mention this important fact. Even today feral horses are descendants of once domesticated horses that aren't tamed or used for human transportation.

And (He has created) horses, mules, and donkeys, for you to ride and use for show; and He has created (other) things of which ye have no knowledge.

Všechny zvířata žijí v komunitách

The Qur'an is emphatic that all animals live in communities. Some animals such as the jaguar or leopard are well known for being solitary creatures, rarely meeting in pairs and only to mate. They do not live in communities and routinely fight each other over territory.

There are also species even whose young are not raised as a family, which lay eggs and abandon them before hatching. Sea Turtles bury their eggs on a beach and leave them. When an egg hatches the baby turtle must dig to the surface and make a sprint to the sea or perish. Some reptiles behave similarly. An even better example is the Carolina anole, which is a lizard species. They lay just a single egg every 2 weeks, around 10 in total, each taking 5 to 7 weeks to hatch. Anole hatchlings must fend for themselves and are by nature solitary creatures from birth.

One translation attempts to interpret umamun (community / nation) to mean genus (group of species, plural: genera). Even supposing this to be the correct interpretation, it would represent the pre-scientific understanding in which every creature can be neatly categorised, ignorant of the on-going process in which sub-groups of many species are diverging and gradually evolving into new species.

There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end.

Let ptáků je zázrak

Today, engineers and scientists are well aware of the aerodynamic properties of a bird's wing. It functions by creating a difference in the air pressure between the lower and upper part of the wing and this creates lift that pushes the bird upward. The wings of birds evolved over millions of years to acquire this feature. The author of the Qur'an, however, is unaware of these scientific details and says that 'nothing' holds up the bird except the miraculous power of Allah.

Do they not look at the birds, held poised in the midst of (the air and) the sky? Nothing holds them up but (the power of) Allah. Verily in this are signs for those who believe

Vrozené vady a nedokonalosti

The author of the Qur'an states that there are no flaws in anything. The author fails to mention the numerous defects and imperfections in all species.

Who hath created seven heavens in harmony. Thou (Muhammad) canst see no fault in the Beneficent One's creation; then look again: Canst thou see any flaw?

Historie

Železná zeď mezi dvěma horami

Autor Koránu opakuje syrskou legendu o Alexandrovi Velikém, jakožo velkému královi, který pomáha kmenu lidí postavit masivní stěnu z železa mezi dvěma horami. Dokonce ani se satelity a téměř kompletním probádání světa, žádny archeolog nenašel ani známku po takové masivní struktuře.

Přineste mi kusy železa!“ A když je narovnal mezi dvě úbočí, rozkázal: „Foukejte!“ Když z toho vznikl oheň, dodal: „Přineste mi k vylití do něho mosaz roztavenou!“


Křesťané uctívají Marii jako část Trojice

Křesťané nikdy neuctívali Marii jako součást svaté trojice. Autor Koránu zřejmě špatně pochopil doktrínu svaté trojice a křesťanskou teologii.

A hle, pravil Bůh: „Ježíši, synu Mariin, zdaž jsi to byl ty, kdo řekl lidem ,Vezměte si mne a matku mou jako dvě božstva vedle Boha'?“ I odpověděl: „Sláva Tobě! Nebylo na mne, abych říkal něco, k čemu jsem neměl právo! Kdybych to byl býval řekl, byl bys to dobře věděl, neboť Ty znáš, co je v duši mé, zatímco já neznám, co je v Tvé duši, vždyť Ty jediný znáš nepoznatelné.

Další důkaz, že autor věřil, že Marie byla součástí křesťanské trojice je v súře Al-Ma'idah, kde je téma trojice explicitně zmíněno:

A věru jsou nevěřící ti, kdož říkají: „Mesiáš, syn Mariin, je Bůh!“ A pravil Mesiáš: „Dítka Izraele, uctívejte Boha, Pána mého i Pána vašeho! Kdo bude přidružovat k Bohu, tomu Bůh zakáže vstup do ráje a bude mu příbytkem oheň pekelný; a nespravedliví nebudou mít pomocníky.“

A jsou věru nevěřící ti, kdo prohlašují: „Bůh je třetí z trojice“ - zatímco není božstva kromě Boha jediného. A nepřestanou-li s tím, co říkají, věru se dotkne těch, kdož z nich jsou nevěřící, trest bolestný!

Proč se tedy kajícně neobrátí k Bohu a neprosí jej za odpuštění, když Bůh zajisté je odpouštějící a slitovný? Mesiáš, syn Mariin, není leč posel, před nímž byli již poslové jiní. A matka jeho byla pravdomluvná - a oba se živili pokrmy. Pohleď, jak jim objasňujeme znamení, a pohleď, do jakých lží se dostali!

Stojí za povšimnutí, že žádná jiná entita není zmíněna (tedy Duch svatý, což je třetí člen trojice podle křesťanské doktríny). Verš 75 dokonce používá tvrzení, že Mesiáš a Marie oba jedli jídlo, aby demonstroval, že jsou normální lidé a nejsou části božské trojice.

Samaritání existovali ve starověkém Egyptě

Korán tvrdí, že Mojžíš jednal se Samaritány v jeho době, nicméně oni neexistovali až do asi půl tisíciletí poté co se událost údajně stala. Samotný termín Samari pochází od města Samaria, archeologicky potvrzené město, které bylo postaveno králem Omri kolem roku 870 př. Kr., téměr 700 let poté, co Mojžíš údajně existoval.

Pravil: „Po tvém odchodu jsme uvedli lid tvůj do pokušení a Samaritán jim dal zbloudit!“
“Potom Mojžíš řekl: „A co je vlastně s tebou, Samaritáne?“

Tyto verše se zabývají příběhem zlatého telete v době Mojžíše. Zdá se, že Mohamed byl zmatený, protože existuje jiná Biblická pasáž v Ozeáš 8:5-6 o mnohem pozdějším zlatém teletu, které uctívali Samaritáni v době Šalamouna.

Marie popletená s Mirjam

Každý z následujících veršů vypráví příběh o Ježíšově početí. Ale Marie, Ježíšova matka, byla narozena v prvním století před Kristem a není v žádném vztahu k Mojžíšovi a jeho rodině, která existovala o 1500 let dříve. Mirjam, ne Marie, byla sestra Mojžíše a Árona a dcerou Amrama (Imrana).

Pak přišla s ním k lidu svému, nesouc jej. I zvolali: „Marie, tys věru provedla věc neslýchanou! Sestro Árónova, otec tvůj nebyl mužem špatným ani matka tvá nebyla nepočestnou!“
A uvádí i Marii, dceru ´Imránovu, jež panenství své střežila a do níž jsme vdechli ducha Svého. A za pravdivá prohlásila slova Pána svého i Písma Jeho a patřila mezi Bohu pokorně oddané.

Tedy tvrzení, že Mariina matka je manželkou Imrána je taky lež.

A hle, pravila manželka ´Imránova: „Pane můj, zaslibuji Ti, co je v lůně mém, aby se zasvětilo Tobě. Přijmi to ode mne, vždyť Tys slyšící, vševědoucí!“ A když to přivedla na svět, zvolala: „Pane můj, přivedla jsem na svět dceru“ - a Bůh dobře věděl, co přivedla na svět, vždyť pohlaví mužské není jako ženské - „a nazvala jsem ji Marií. A svěřuji ji i potomstvo její do ochrany Tvé před satanem prokletým.“

Fakt, že dva rozdílní lidé mají stejné jméno přestože žili asi 1000 let od sebe, v komunitách, které mluvily úplně jinými jazyky (starověká paleo-hebrejština a poté syrštino-aramejština), s různými abecedami, také zpochybňuje historicitu Koránského popisu.

Poštovní schránky byly vynalezeny během vlády Davida

There is no evidence that Coats of mail existed during the time of David (10th century BCE). The earliest example of a coat of mail was Celtic and its invention is commonly credited to the Celts in the 3rd century BCE.[2]. Mail has also been found in a 5th century BCE Scythian grave, and there is a cumbersome Etruscan pattern mail artifact from the 4th century BCE.[3] Such artifacts would have been easily preserved and found by archeologists if they had existed much earlier.

In the Qur'an, David is taught by Allah how to make coats of iron chainmail (sabighatin سَٰبِغَٰتٍ) and to measure the chainmail links (as-sardi ٱلسَّرْدِ) thereof. It says people should be thankful for this knowledge which has been passed down from him.

And assuredly We gave David grace from Us, (saying): O ye hills and birds, echo his psalms of praise! And We made the iron supple unto him, Saying: Make thou long coats of mail and measure the links (thereof). And do ye right. Lo! I am Seer of what ye do.
And We made Solomon to understand (the case); and unto each of them We gave judgment and knowledge. And we subdued the hills and the birds to hymn (His) praise along with David. We were the doers (thereof). And We taught him the art of making garments (of mail) to protect you in your daring. Are ye then thankful?

Ukřižovávání ve starověkém Egyptě

There are no references from any culture anywhere in the world to crucifixion as a method of execution before 500 BCE, where they started to appear in several middle eastern cultures, and it is not clear that their crucifixions were the same as what we know (the Roman crucifixion)/they are the same type. Ancient Egypt has been extensively studied in archaeology as well. However, the Qur’an tells of crucifixions at the time of Joseph (approximately 2000 BCE) and Moses (approximately 1500 BCE).

Not only that, but crucifixions are often mentioned in a very casual way in the Qu'ran, so the practice must have been widespread enough to be understood by common people, as common people are being addressed in these suras.

O two companions of prison, as for one of you, he will give drink to his master of wine; but as for the other, he will be crucified, and the birds will eat from his head. The matter has been decreed about which you both inquire."
Said Pharaoh: "Believe ye in Him before I give you permission? Surely this is a trick which ye have planned in the city to drive out its people: but soon shall ye know (the consequences). Be sure I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will cause you all to die on the cross."

Noemova potopa

Islamic websites try to escape the embarrassment that the Qur'an contains an un-historical, world-wide flood story as found in the Bible and ancient near-Eastern mythology. They claim instead that the textual evidence supports nothing more than a regional flood in the Qur'anic story of Noah. There are many severe weaknesses in this claim.

If the flood was not world-wide then why was Noah instructed to spend time building a boat at all when he could have just taken his family out of the flood region with sufficient warning? Animals in the region could have done likewise by the same kind of miracle needed to bring them all to an ark.

At length, behold! there came Our command, and the fountains of the earth gushed forth! We said: "Embark therein, of each kind two, male and female, and your family - except those against whom the word has already gone forth,- and the Believers." but only a few believed with him.

Why would Noah have to put every kind of animal on the ark to save them when there would have been more members of most species elsewhere in the world, unaffected by the regional flood?

The son replied: "I will betake myself to some mountain: it will save me from the water." Noah said: "This day nothing can save, from the command of Allah, any but those on whom He hath mercy! "And the waves came between them, and the son was among those overwhelmed in the Flood.

A mountain, or simply fleeing the region would be enough to save someone from a regional flood, but this verse says nothing can save them.

And Noah, said: "O my Lord! Leave not of the Unbelievers, a single one on earth!

"The Earth" here could also be translated "the land", but why would Noah only care about a single region of disbelievers?

The story of Noah was a famous myth of a world-wide flood. At very least it is a major weakness that the Qur'an makes no attempt to distinguish itself from the same world-wide flood myth that its listeners were familiar with.

Noeamova archa obsahovala všechny živočišné druhy

The legend of Noah and the Ark states that two of each kind of animal was placed on an ark. However, there are over a hundred thousand species of animals including penguins, polar bears, koala bears, and kangaroos that live spread across the entire planet and in different climates and requiring specialized diets. There is no way such an event could have occurred.

At length, behold! there came Our command, and the fountains of the earth gushed forth! We said: "Embark therein, of each kind two, male and female, and your family - except those against whom the word has already gone forth,- and the Believers." but only a few believed with him.

Faraon nebo faraoni

Geographically, the Coptic land of Egypt was adjacent to Arabia. Thus, most Arabs were aware of the preservation method applied by the ancient Egyptian to their Pharaohs. There were so many Pharaohs ranging from numerous dynasties, many of them were preserved intact. But the Qur'an merely narrated one Pharaoh that was preserved.

This day shall We save thee in the body, that thou mayest be a sign to those who come after thee! but verily, many among mankind are heedless of Our Signs!"

Židé nazývají Ezru synem božím

Historically, Judaism has been a strict form of monotheism. But the author of the Qur'an accuses Jews of polytheism by stating that they call Uzair (Ezra) the son of God in the same way that Christians see Jesus as the son of God. The author of the Qur'an seems to be unaware of the different theological implications of these two terms between Judaism and Christianity.

The Jews call 'Uzair a son of Allah, and the Christians call Christ the son of Allah. That is a saying from their mouth; (in this) they but imitate what the unbelievers of old used to say. Allah's curse be on them: how they are deluded away from the Truth!

Nikomu před Janem Křtitelem nebylo dáno jméno "Jan"

The name "John" originates from the Hebrew name Yohanan. Several figures in the Old Testament bore this name. To quote historical examples, there was a high priest named Johanan (3rd century BC) and a ruler named John Hyrcanus (died 104 BC). These people existed before John the Baptist, who was a contemporary of Jesus. But the Qur'an claims that nobody before John the Baptist (Yahya in Arabic) bore his name.

(It was said unto him): O Zachariah! Lo! We bring thee tidings of a son whose name is John; we have given the same name to none before (him).

Nadpřirozená destrukce měst

Autor Koránu si myslel, že v okolí Arábie jsou města a kmeny zničené Aláhem za to, že odmítli jeho posly a islám. V každém konkrétním příkladu v Koránu (A'ad, Thamud, Midian, Lotův lid, faraonova armáda), zničení nevěřících je rázem a zcela. Díky dnešnímu vědeckému pokroku, historická města a kmeny jsou známé, že byly zničeny přírodníma katastrofama, hladomory, válkami, migrací, nebo zanedbáním, což často zabere léta nebo desítky let. Ale Korán pouze opakuje obvyklý mýtus starověkého blízkého východu, kde se tyto příhody považují za okamžité a rychlé a náhlé tresty od boha za lidské hříchy.

Kolika městům jsme již dali zahynout, protože byla nespravedlivá a dnes jsou od základu zpustošena! A kolik studní je zasypáno a kolik vznosných zámků zbořeno!

Náhlost Aláhova trestu je zvýrazněna mnohokrát v súře al-A'raf:

Kolik měst jsme již zahubili! Přísnost Naše je zastihla za noci anebo za poledne.
A každý národ má svou lhůtu danou, a když se lhůta jeho dovrší, nemůže ji odložit ani uspíšit ni o hodinu jedinou.
Jsou si obyvatelé těchto měst jisti tím, že na ně nedopadne přísnost Naše během doby noční, když do spánku jsou pohrouženi? Jsou si obyvatelé těchto měst jisti tím, že na ně nedopadne přísnost Naše během dne jasného, když zábavám se oddávají?

V Koránu, lid Thamud byl zabit okamžitě zemětřesením Quran 7:78 anebo hromobitím Quran 11:67, Quran 41:13-17, Quran 51:44, Quran 69:5. Lid A'ad byl zabit silným větrem po 7 dní Quran 41:13-16,Quran 46:24-35,Quran 51:41, Quran 69:6-7. Lid Midian (Midyan) byl zabit přes noc zemětřesením Quran 7:91, Quran 29:36. Města Lota byla zničena deštěm kamenů z nebe Quran 54:32, Quran 29:34. Konkrétní umístění těchto měst jsou momentálně neznáma, a Midian byla široká geografická oblast, tedy tvrzení o jejich náhlém zničení mohou být nefalzifikovatelná. Mnoho jiných polyteistických měst rozhodně nezažilo žádné náhlé zničení.

Lidé mohou žít tisíc let

Nejstarší potvrzený lidský život byl něco přes 120 let. Na základě fosilních záznamů a zkoumání lidských pozůstatků, antropologové došli k závěru, že délka lidského života se zvyšuje, ne snižuje. Nicméně Korán tvrdí, že Noe žil téměř tisíc let.

A vyslali jsme již kdysi Noema k lidu jeho a zůstal mezi nimi tisíc let bez padesáti. A zachvátila je potopa, neboť byli nespravedliví.

Neexistující mešita v Jeruzalémě

Muslimové tvrdí, že mešita Al-Aqsa je zmíněna v Koránu jakožto nejvzálenější mešita, přestože v Jeruzálémě nebyla žádná mešita v době Mohameda.

Sláva tomu, jenž za noci přenesl služebníka Svého z Posvátné mešity do mešity nejvzdálenější, jejíž okolí jsme požehnali, abychom mu ukázali některá Svá znamení. A On věru slyšící je a jasnozřivý.

Sociologie

Lidé jsou v Mekce ochránění

Korán tvrdí, že Aláh udělal Mekku a Kábu bezpečným místem. Nicméně ty místa byly v historii mnohokrát napadeny a válčilo se tam. Juhayman al-Otaybi, Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr a Abu Tahir al-Janabi zabili tisíce muslimských poutníků v Mekce. Navíc, Yazid Bin Muawiya poslal vojenský prapor aby zaútočil na Mekku a znesvětil Kábu. Obecná bezpečnost lidí v Mekce nemá žádné historické důkazy, které by ji podporovaly.

A hle, učinili jsme chrám tento místem návštěv i útočištěm pro lidi (آمِنًا) a řekli jsme: „Učiňte si místo Abrahamovo modlitebnou!“ A uložili jsme Abrahamovi a Ismaelovi v úmluvě, aby udržovali chrám Můj v čistotě pro ty, kdož obcházení konají, kdož se u něho zdržují a kdož se sklánějí a na tvář padají.

Anglický překlad od Yusuf Ali překládá آمِنًا jako "a place of safety" [4].

A Bůh ustanovil Ka´bu chrámem posvátným, vztyčeným (قِيَامًا) pro lidi, a ustanovil měsíc posvátný i obětní zvířata a ověnčení - a to proto, abyste zvěděli, že Bůh zná vše, co na nebesích je i na zemi, a že Bůh ví o každé věci.

Anglický překlad od Yusuf Ali překládá قِيَامًا jako "an asylum of security" [5].

Požadavek učit se v arabštině

Existuje více, než 5000 jazyků a dialektů ve světě, s méně než 4% lidské populace rodilých mluvších arabštiny. Nicméně je nutné aby se muslimové modlili v arabštině, recitovali Korán v arabštině a chápali komentáře a tradice Mohameda v arabštině. Divíme se, proč by vše-vědoucí bytost neposkytla efektivnější metodu pro zaslání své zprávy všem lidem na Zemi a proč nepočítá s tou obrovskou diverzitou jazyků.

Učinili jsme je věru Koránem arabským - snad budete rozumní!

Mýty a legendy

Zatímco zázraky by podle definice měly porušovat zákony přírody a vědecká vysvětlení, je zajímavé všimnout si některých podivných a absurdních mýtů a legend v Koránu.

Lidé transformování na opice

Korán zachycuje zázračnou událost, kdy byli porušovatelé sabatu transformování na opice. Tento popis se zdá být pouhou legendou, jelikož nemá žádné vědecké opodstatnění.

Zajisté znali jste ty mezi sebou, kdož sobotu znesvětili a jimž jsme řekli: „Buďte opicemi opovrženými!“

Socha zlatého telete bučí

Sice to byla jenom socha, ale přesto mohla bučet.

A učinil pro ně tele, jež mělo tělo a bučelo, a řekli: „Toto je božstvo vaše i božstvo Mojžíšovo, avšak on na ně již zapomněl.“

Kmeny chycené za zdí

Příběh "dvourožce" (Dhul-Qarnayn) říká, že jsou dva kmeny chycené za masivní železnou zdí. Podle Koránu, tu zeď postavil dvourožec a oni budou vypuštění v Den soudný. Evidentně, žádná taková zeď nebyla nalezena a ani nejsou žádné kmeny, které by za ní byly schované.

pokud nebudou vypuštěni Gog a Magog; a tehdy se lidé z každého hrobu vynoří!

Nadpřirozené jídlo

Korán tvrdí, že Marie obdržela jídlo poslané z nebes. Neexistují žádné vědecky ověřené případy plně uvařeného jídla padajícího z nebe.

I zvolal Ježíš, syn Mariin: „Veliký Bože, Pane náš! Sešli nám stůl prostřený z nebes, jenž svátkem bude pro nás, jak pro prvního, tak i pro posledního z nás, i znamením od Tebe! A dej nám příděl štědrý, vždyť Tys nejlepší z uštědřovatelů!“

Hůl se transformuje na plaz

I hodil Mojžíš hůl svou na zem - a hle, stala se hadem zjevným.

Šalamounova armáda džinů a ptáků

V průběhu historie, králové a císaři poroučeli větším či menším armádám. Nikdo z nich, ale není znám, že by vlastnil armády, které jsou složené z ptáků a džinů. Tento příběh v Koránu čerpá z židovského folklóru.

Šalomoun pak stal se dědicem Davidovým a pravil: „Lidé, byli jsme naučeni řeči ptactva a byli jsme zahrnuti věcí všech hojností. A věru je toto zjevné dobrodiní!“ A shromáždila se u Šalomouna vojska jeho z džinů, smrtelníků a ptáků a všichni po oddílech kráčeli;

Mluvil s dudkem a chtěl jej potrestat za malou chybu.

Potom provedl přehlídku ptactva a otázal se: ,,Čím to, že dudka zde nevidím? Nebo snad přítomen není? Věru jej ztrestám trestem těžkým či jej zaříznu, nepřinese-li mi zjevné ospravedlnění!“


Dudek byl ve skutečnosti zaneprázdněn odposloucháváním krásné vládkyně Sáby.

A zdržel se dudek nepříliš dlouho a po příchodu pravil: „Zjistil jsem něco, co ty sám dosud nevíš, a přicházím k tobě ze Sáby se zvěstí jistou:

Jonáš provádí pokání uvnitř ryby

Člověk by nemohl žít v rybě a modlit se v ní.

a pohltila jej ryba, zatímco pokárání zasloužil. A kdyby nebyl z těch, kdož Boha oslavují, byl by jistě v břiše jejím zůstal až do dne vzkříšení. A vyvrhli jsme jej chorého na břeh pustý

Mohamed letí na okřídleném koni do nebe

Trvalo jeden týden, odcestovat z Mekky až k nejvzdálenější mešitě na velbloudovi. Ale Korán zjevuje, že magický létající kůň, zvaný Burák, odcestoval podobnou vzdálenost za pár minut. Nikdy se neukázalo, že by taková bytost byla reálná a zdá se, že existuje jen v legendách a mýtech.

Sláva tomu, jenž za noci přenesl služebníka Svého z Posvátné mešity do mešity nejvzdálenější, jejíž okolí jsme požehnali, abychom mu ukázali některá Svá znamení. A On věru slyšící je a jasnozřivý.

Části těla mluví

Končetiny a orgány lidí jsou ovládány mozkem, který posílá elektrický signál skrze nervový systém. Ale Korán věří, že končetiny mohou mluvit a svědčit proti člověku, přestože nemají žádný vlastní hlas, paměť nebo mysl.

v den, kdy budou jazyky i ruce i nohy jejích svědčit proti nim o tom, co dělali.

Moře rozpůleno

Mojžíš a Izraelité přešli moře které bylo rozděleno na dvě části.

A hle, rozdělili jsme moře před vámi a zachránili jsme vás a utopili jsme rod Faraónův, zatímco vy jste na to hleděli.

Šalamoun může ovládat vzduch

Král Šalamoun měl moc ovládat vzduch jeho příkazem a mohl letět kam chtěl.

A podrobili jsme mu vítr, který lehce podle rozkazu jeho vál tam, kam on si přál,
Létající koberec ze dřeva, na němž mohl nést cokoliv ze svého království včetně křesla, kamkoliv Šalamoun chtěl, zatímco hejna ptáků létaly nad ním aby vytvářely stín
Ibn-Kathir k verši 21:81

Mrtvý muž svědčil proti svému vrahovi

Aláh řekl lidem aby udeřili zavražděnou oběť kusem krávy, aby jej dočasně oživili.

Tehdy jsme řekli: „Udeřte mrtvého částí této krávy obětované!“ A takto Bůh oživuje mrtvé a ukazuje vám znamení svá - snad budete rozumní.

Hory a ptáci můžou zpívat písně

A darovali jsme kdysi Davidovi milost Svou řkouce: „Hory, pějte s ním slávu Boží, a taktéž vy, ptáci!“ A změkčili jsme pro něj železo

Jiné

Lingvistika

A naučil Adama jména všechna, potom je předvedl andělům a řekl: „Sdělte mi jména těchto, jste-li pravdomluvní!“

Korán v mnoha súrách uvádí, že první lidé "Adam a Eva" spolu mluvili jakýmsi jazykem, a také že jim můh řekl názvy všeho. Díky současnému oboru lingvistiky a historie jazyka víme, že typy vět které jsou v Koránu jednoduše nemohly být mluveny lidmi dříve než 100 000 let po vyvinutí prvních lidí. Jazyk prvních lidí by nám byl nesrozumitelný a oni by nebyli schopni vyjádřit věty, které v Koránu říkají Adam a Eva.

Matematická chyba v zákonech o dědictví

4.11: A Bůh vám stanoví o dětech vašich toto: synovi podíl rovný podílu dvou dcer; a je-li dcer více než dvě, patří jim dvě třetiny toho, co zůstavil. A jestliže je dcera pouze sama, tedy jí patří polovina. A rodičům jeho: každému z nich jedna šestina toho, co zůstavil, jestliže měl mužského potomka. Jestliže neměl mužského potomka, pak po něm dědí jeho rodiče, přičemž matce jeho patří jedna třetina. A jestliže měl bratry, pak matce náleží jedna šestina toho, co zůstane po vyplacení odkazů a uhrazení dluhu“. A vy nevíte, kdo z rodičů či dětí vašich je vám užitečnější. A toto je ustanovení od Boha a věru Bůh je vševědoucí, moudrý.

4.12: Vám náleží polovina z toho , co zůstavily manželky vaše, jestliže neměly mužského potomka. A jestliže měly mužského potomka, patří vám z toho, co zůstavily, jedna čtvrtina poté, když byly vyplaceny odkazy a uhrazeny dluhy jejich. A manželkám patří jedna čtvrtina toho, co zůstavíte, jestliže nemáte mužského potomka. A jestliže máte mužského potomka, pak patří manželkám jedna osmina toho, co jste zůstavili po vyplacení odkazů a po uhrazení dluhů. Jestliže muž nebo žena zanechají dědictví po boční linii a mají bratra nebo sestru, pak každému z obou patří jedna šestina. A je-li jich více, pak jsou podílníky na jedné třetině po vyplacení odkazů a po uhrazení dluhů aniž se tím někomu uškodí. A toto je ustanovení od Boha a Bůh je vševědoucí, blahovolný.
  • Manželka: 1/8 = 3/24,
  • Dcery: 2/3 = 16/24,
  • Otec: 1/6 = 4/24,
  • Matka: 1/6 = 4/24,
  • Součet = 27/24=1.125

Součet se nerovná 1. Tato chyba nemůže být nijak vyřešena. [5]

Lidé ke lhaní používají čelo

Dle obzvláště nápaditého tvrzení o zázraku, které prohlašují některé islámské stránky, Korán identifikuje která část mozku se používá pro říkání lží. Studium mozkových vln ukázalo, že elektrická aktivita probíhá v celém mozku když člověk klame.

Však pozor, nepřestane-li, tedy jej věru chytíme za jeho kštici, tu kštici prolhanou a hříšnou!

Reference

  1. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. (17th ed. ed.). New York [etc.]: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. 2339–2346. ISBN 978-0-07-147693-5, 2008. 
  2. Richard A. Gabriel, The ancient world, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007 P.79
  3. Robinson, H. R., Oriental Armour, New York:Dover Publications, 1995, pp.10-12
  4. http://quranx.com/2.125
  5. http://quranx.com/5.97

Viz také