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The Islamic tradition has much to say on different animals. Perhaps most strikingly, the hadith provide the remarkable story of the buraq, a flying creature which took Muhammad on a tour of the al-masjid al-aqsa as well as the heavens. Outside of the buraq, the presents Muhammad and the sahabah as having strong opinions on different animals. Above all the tradition shows a great antipathy towards dogs, who will keep angels from entering the house of those who possess them. Their killing is condoned, along with some other "troublesome" reptiles such as salamanders, geckos and snakes. In addition, only some animals may be killed and eaten by the believers, including cows, goats, and sheep. While the eating of "unclean" animals such as dogs and reptiles is condemned, so likewise is vegetarianism, and indeed the tradition states that meat will be served to the believers in heaven.
The Buraq is a mythical flying creature which Muhammad claimed he rode on his "Night Journey."
Narrated Abbas bin Malik:
Malik bin Sasaa said that Allah's Apostle described to them his Night Journey saying, "While I was lying in Al-Hatim or Al-Hijr, suddenly someone came to me and cut my body open from here to here." I asked Al-Jarud who was by my side, "What does he mean?" He said, "It means from his throat to his pubic area," or said, "From the top of the chest." The Prophet further said, "He then took out my heart. Then a gold tray of Belief was brought to me and my heart was washed and was filled (with Belief) and then returned to its original place. Then a white animal which was smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey was brought to me." (On this Al-Jarud asked, "Was it the Buraq, O Abu Hamza?" I (i.e. Anas) replied in the affirmative). The Prophet said, "The animal's step (was so wide that it) reached the farthest point within the reach of the animal's sight.
I was carried on it, and Gabriel set out with me till we reached the nearest heaven.
Then he [Gabriel] brought the Buraq, handsome-faced and bridled, a tall, white beast, bigger than the donkey but smaller than the mule. He could place his hooves at the farthest boundary of his gaze. He had long ears. Whenever he faced a mountain his hind legs would extend, and whenever he went downhill his front legs would extend. He had two wings on his thighs which lent strength to his legs
He bucked when the Prophet came to mount him. Jibril put his hand on his mane and said: "Are you not ashamed, O Buraq? By Allah, no-one has ridden you in all creation more dear to Allah than he is." Hearing this he was so ashamed that he sweated until he became soaked, and he stood still so that the Prophet mounted him.
Muhammad al-Alawi al-Maliki, al-Anwar al Bahiyya min Isra wa l-Mi'raj Khayr al-Bariyyah
Hunting with Dogs
Narrated 'Adi bin Hatim: I asked the Prophet (about the hunting dogs) and he replied, "If you let loose (with Allah's name) your tamed dog after a game and it hunts it, you may eat it, but if the dog eats of (that game) then do not eat it because the dog has hunted it for itself." I further said, "Sometimes I send my dog for hunting and find another dog with it. He said, "Do not eat the game for you have mentioned Allah's name only on sending your dog and not the other dog."
Narrated 'Adi bin Hatim: I asked the Prophet, "I send off (for a game) my trained hunting dogs; (what is your verdict concerning the game they hunt?" He said, "If you send off your trained hunting dogs and mention the Name of Allah, then, if they catch some game, eat (thereof). And if you hit the game with a mi'rad (a hunting tool) and it wounds it, you can eat (it)."
Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'As: There was a bedouin called AbuTha'labah. He said: Apostle of Allah, I have trained dogs, so tell me your opinion about (eating) the animal they hunt. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: If you have trained dogs, then eat what they catch for you. He asked: Whether it is slaughtered or not? He replied: Yes. He asked: Does it apply even if it eats any of it? He replied: Even if it eats any of it. He again asked: Apostle of Allah, tell me your opinion about my bow (i.e. the game hunted by arrow). He said: Eat what your bow returns to you, whether it is slaughtered or not. He asked: If it goes out of my sight? He replied: Even if it goes out of your sight, provided it has no stench, or you find a mark on it other than the mark of your arrow. He asked: Tell me about the use of the vessels of the Magians when we are forced to use them. He replied: Wash them and eat in them.
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that Sad ibn Abi Waqqas had said, when asked about a trained dog killing game, "Eat, even if only one piece of it remains."
Angels do not like Dogs
Narrated Abu Talha: I heard Allah's Apostle saying; "Angels (of Mercy) do not enter a house wherein there is a dog or a picture of a living creature (a human being or an animal)."
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Angels do not accompany the travellers who have with them a dog and a bell.
Maimuna reported that one morning Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was silent with grief. Maimuna said: Allah's Messenger, I find a change in your mood today. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Gabriel had promised me that he would meet me tonight, but he did not meet me. By Allah, he never broke his promises, and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) spent the day in this sad (mood). Then it occurred to him that there had been a puppy under their cot. He commanded and it was turned out. He then took some water in his hand and sprinkled it at that place. When it was evening Gabriel met him and he said to him: you promised me that you would meet me the previous night. He said: Yes, but we (angels) do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture
. Then on that very morning he commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed, but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields (or big gardens).
Dogs Annul Prayers
Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs. I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away. for I disliked to face him."
The Black Dog is a Devil
Abu Dharr reported: The Messenger of 'Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When any one of you stands for prayer and there is a thing before him equal to the back of the saddle that covers him and in case there is not before him (a thing) equal to the back of the saddle, his prayer would be cut off by (passing of an) ass, woman, and black Dog. I said: O Abu Dharr, what feature is there in a black dog which distinguish it from the red dog and the yellow dog? He said: O, son of my brother, I asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) as you are asking me, and he said: The black dog is a devil.
Killing Crows, Kites, Mice, Scorpions and Dogs
Narrated Hafsa: Allah's Apostle said, "It is not sinful (of a Muhrim) to kill five kinds of animals, namely: the crow, the kite, the mouse, the scorpion and the rabid dog."
Narrated Aisha: Allah's Apostle said, "Five kinds of animals are harmful and could be killed in the Haram (Sanctuary). These are: the crow, the kite, the scorpion, the mouse and the rabid dog."
Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet said, "Five kinds of animals are mischief-doers and can be killed even in the Sanctuary: They are the rat the scorpion, the kite, the crow and the rabid dog."
Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Umar:
Allah's Apostle said, "It is not sinful of a person in the state of Ihram to kill any of these five animals: The scorpion, the rat, the rabid dog, the crow and the kite."
A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Five are the harmful things which should be killed in the state of Ihram or otherwise: snake, speckled crow. rat. voracious dog, and kite.
A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Five are the vicious beasts which should be killed even in the state of Ihram: scorpion, rat, kite, crow and voracious dog.
Salim reported on the authority of his father (Allah be pleased with them) that the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Five are the (beasts) which if one kills them in the precincts of the Ka'ba or in the state of lhram entail no sin: rat, scorpion, crow, kite and voracious dog. In another version the words are:" as a Muhrim and in the state of lhram".
Hafsa, the wife of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him), reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said this: There are five beasts, all of them are vicious and harmful and there is no sin for one who kills them (and these are): scorpion, crow, kite, rat and voracious dog.
Zaid b. Jubair reported: A person asked Ibn Umar which beast a Muhrim could kill. Thereupon he said: One of the wives of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) told me: He (the Holy Prophet) commanded to kill rat, scorpion, kite, voracious dog and crow.
Zaid b. Jubair reported: A person asked Ibn 'Umar which beast a Mubrim could kill, whereupon he said: One of the wives of Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) told me: He (the Holy Prophet) commanded to kill voracious dog, rat, scorpion, kite, crow, and snake (and this is allowed) likewise in prayer.
Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are five kinds of animal which it is not wrong for some one in ihram to kill: crows, kites, scorpions, rats and mice, and wild dogs."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abdullah ibn Dinar from Abdullah ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace,said,"There are five (kinds of) animal which it is not wrong for some one in ihram to kill: scorpions, rats and mice, crows, kites and wild dogs. "
Yahya related to me from Malik from Hisham ibn Urwa from his father that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "There are five trespassers that can be killed in the Haram: rats and mice, scorpions, crows, kites and wild dogs."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab that Umar ibn al-Khattab told people to kill snakes in the Haram.
Malik said, about the "wild dogs" which people were told to kill in the Haram, that any animals that wounded, attacked, or terrorised men, such as lions, leopards, Iynxes and wolves, were counted as"wild dogs." However, someone who was in ihram should not kill beasts of prey that did not attack (people), such as hyenas, foxes, cats and anything else like them, and if he did then he had to pay a forfeit for it. Similarly, someone in ihram should not kill any predatory birds except the kinds that the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, specified, namely crows and kites. If someone in ihram killed any other kind of bird he had to pay a forfeit for it.
Maimuna reported that one morning Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was silent with grief. Maimuna said: Allah's Messenger, I find a change in your mood today. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Gabriel had promised me that he would meet me tonight, but he did not meet me. By Allah, he never broke his promises, and Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) spent the day in this sad (mood). Then it occurred to him that there had been a puppy under their cot. He commanded and it was turned out. He then took some water in his hand and sprinkled it at that place. When it was evening Gabriel met him and he said to him: you promised me that you would meet me the previous night. He said: Yes, but we do not enter a house in which there is a dog or a picture. Then on that very morning he commanded the killing of the dogs until he announced that the dog kept for the orchards should also be killed, but he spared the dog meant for the protection of extensive fields (or big gardens)
Narrated Jabir ibn Abdullah: The Prophet of Allah (peace be upon him) ordered to kill dogs, and we were even killing a dog which a woman brought with her from the desert. Afterwards he forbade to kill them, saying: Confine yourselves to the type which is black.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Mughaffal: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Were dogs not a species of creature I should command that they all be killed;
but kill every pure black one.
Abdullah (b. Umar) (Allah be pleased with them) reported: Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) ordered the killing of dogs
and we would send (men) in Medina and its corners and we did not spare any dog that we did not kill
, so much so that we killed the dog that accompanied the wet she-camel belonging to the people of the desert.
Amir b. Sa'd reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) commanded the killing of geckos, and he called them little noxious creatures.
Narrated Um Sharik: That the Prophet ordered her to kill Salamanders.
Narrated 'Aisha the wife of the Prophet: Allah's Apostle called the salamander a bad animal, but I did not hear him ordering it to be killed."
Saa’ibah the slave woman of al-Faakih ibn al-Mugheerah [said] that she entered upon ‘Aa’ishah and saw a spear sitting there in her house. She said, “O Mother of the Believers, what do you do with this?” She said, “We kill these salamanders with it, because the Prophet of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us that when Ibraaheem was thrown into the fire, there was no animal on earth but it tried to extinguish the fire, except for the salamander, which was blowing on the fire (to keep it burning). So the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded that they should be killed.”
Sunan Ibn Maajah, No. 3222. He said in al-Zawaa’id, the isnaad of ‘Aa’ishah’s hadeeth is saheeh, its men are thiqaat (trustworthy)
Narrated Aisha: The Prophet called the Salamander, a mischief-doer. I have not heard him ordering that it should be killed. Sad bin Waqqas claims that the Prophet ordered that it should be killed.
Narrated Ibn Umar:
That he heard the Prophet delivering a sermon on the pulpit saying, "Kill snakes and kill Dhu-at-Tufyatain (i.e. a snake with two white lines on its back) and ALBATROSS (i.e. a snake with short or mutilated tail) for they destroy the sight of one's eyes and bring about abortion." ('Abdullah bin 'Umar further added): Once while I was chasing a snake in order, to kill it, Abu Lubaba called me saying: "Don't kill it," I said. "Allah's Apostle ordered us to kill snakes." He said, "But later on he prohibited the killing of snakes living in the houses." (Az-Zubri said. "Such snakes are called Al-Awamir.")
Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet said, "Kill the snake with two white lines on its back, for it blinds the on-looker and causes abortion."
Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet ordered that a short-tailed or mutilated-tailed snake (i.e. Abtar) should be killed, for it blinds the on-looker and causes abortion."
Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud: Kill all the snakes except the little white one which looks like a silver wand.
Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet said: Kill the two black things during prayer, the snake and scorpion.
Jabir reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Shut the doors; the rest of the hadith is the same but with a slight variation of wording: Cover the utensils, and further said: It (the mouse) may set fire to the clothes of the residents of the house.
This hadith has been reported on the authority of Jabir through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of words:" The mouse may set the house on fire over its inhabitants."
Yahya related to me from Malik from Abu'z-Zubayr al-Makki from Jabir ibn Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, "Lock the door, tie the waterskin, turn the vessel over or cover it, and put out the lamp. Shaytan does not open a locked door or untie a tied knot, or uncover a vessel. A mouse may set fire to people's houses about them."
It was narrated from Aishah that the Messenger of Allah said: "Geckos are vermin."
No Vegetarianism in Heaven
When 'Abdullah bin Salam heard the arrival of the Prophet at Medina, he came to him and said, "I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a prophet: What is the first portent of the Hour? What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise? Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle" Allah's Apostle said, "Gabriel has just now told me of their answers." 'Abdullah said, "He (i.e. Gabriel), from amongst all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews." Allah's Apostle said, "The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be Extra-lobe (caudate lobe) of fish-liver
. As for the resemblance of the child to its parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and gets discharge first, the child will resemble the father, and if the woman gets discharge first, the child will resemble her."
Restrictions Relating to Animals
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Whoever keeps a dog, one Qirat of the reward of his good deeds is deducted daily, unless the dog is used for guarding a farm or cattle." Abu Huraira (in another narration) said from the Prophet, "unless it is used for guarding sheep or farms, or for hunting." Narrated Abu Hazim from Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "A dog for guarding cattle or for hunting."
Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard some of the people of knowledge say that when falcons, eagles, and hawks and their like, understood as trained dogs understood, there was no harm in eating what they had killed in the course of hunting, if the name of Allah had been mentioned when they were sent out. Malik said, "The best of what I have heard about retrieving game from the falcon's talons or from the dog's fangs and then waiting until it dies, is that it is not halal to eat it." Malik said, "The same applies to anything which could have been slaughtered by the hunter when it was in the talons of the falcon or the fangs of the dog. If the hunter leaves it until the falcon or dog has killed it, it is not halal to eat it either". He continued, "The same thing applies to any game hit by a hunter and caught while still alive, which he neglects to slaughter before it dies." Malik said, "It is generally agreed among us that it is halal to eat the game that a hunting-dog belonging to magians hunts or kills, if it is sent out by a muslim and the animal is trained. There is no harm in it even if the muslim does not actually slaughter it. It is the same as a muslim using a magian's knife to slaughter with or using his bow and arrows to shoot and kill with. The game he shot and the animal he slaughters are halal. There is no harm in eating them. If a magian sends out a muslim's hunting dog for game, and it catches it, the game is not to be eaten unless it is slaughtered by a muslim. That is like a magian using a muslim's bow and arrow to hunt game with, or like his using a muslim's knife to slaughter with. It is not halal to eat anything killed like that.
Abu Bashir Ansari reported that he had had (the opportunity of accompanying Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) in some of his journeys. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) sent one of his messengers 'Abdullah b Abi Bakr said: I think he said (these words) when the people were at the places of rest: No necklace of strings be left on the necks of the camels or the necklace kept unbroken
. Imam Malik said: To my mind (this practice) of wearing necklace round the necks of camels or animals was because of the fact that they (wanted to save them) from the influence of the evil eye.
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle offered four Rakat of Zuhr prayer at Medina and we were in his company, and two Rakat of the Asr prayer at Dhul-Hulaifa and then passed the night there till it was dawn; then he rode, and when he reached Al-Baida', he praised and glorified Allah and said Takbir (i.e. Alhamdu-lillah and Subhanallah(1) and Allahu-Akbar). Then he and the people along with him recited Talbiya with the intention of performing Hajj and Umra. When we reached (Mecca) he ordered us to finish the lhram (after performing the Umra) (only those who had no Hadi (animal for sacrifice) with them were asked to do so) till the day of Tarwiya that is 8th Dhul-Hijja when they assumed Ihram for Hajj. The Prophet sacrificed many camels (slaughtering them) with his own hands while standing. While Allah's Apostle was in Medina he sacrificed two horned rams black and white in color
in the Name of Allah.
Narrated 'Ali: The Prophet sent me to supervise the (slaughtering of) Budn (Hadi camels) and ordered me to distribute their meat, and then he ordered me to distribute their covering sheets and skins. 'All added, "The Prophet ordered me to supervise the slaughtering (of the Budn) and not to give anything (of their bodies) to the butcher as wages for slaughtering."
Narrated 'Amra: I heard 'Aisha saying, "We set out (from Medina) along with Allah's Apostle five days before the end of Dhul-Qa'da with the intention of performing Hajj only. When we approached Mecca, Allah's Apostle ordered those who had no Hadi along with them to finish the lhram after performing Tawaf of the Ka'ba, (Safa and Marwa). 'Aisha added, "Beef was brought to us on the Day of Nahr and I said, 'What is this?' Somebody said, 'The Prophet has slaughtered (cows) on behalf of his wives.' "
Women are like Animals
Now then, O people, you have a right over your wives and they have a right over you. You have [the right] that they should not cause anyone of whom you dislike to tread on your beds; and that they should not commit any open indecency. If they do, then Allah permits you to shut them in separate rooms and to beat them, but not severely. If they abstain from [evil], they have the right to their food and clothing in accordance with the custom. Treat women well, for they are [like] domestic animals with you and do not possess anything for themselves.
You have taken them only as a trust from Allah, and you have made the enjoyment of their persons lawful by the word of Allah, so understand and listen to my words, O people. I have conveyed the Message, and have left you with something which, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray; that is, the Book of Allah and the sunnah of his Prophet. Listen to my words, O people, for I have conveyed the Message and understand [it]. Know for certain that every Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, and that all Muslims are brethren. It is not lawful for a person [to take] from his brother except that which he has given him willingly, so do not wrong yourselves. O Allah, have I not conveyed the message?
al-Tabari (d. 923), Ismail K. Poonawala, ed, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. IX, SUNY Press, p. 113, ISBN 0-88706-691-7, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n2267/mode/2up أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 3, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 151, https://app.turath.io/book/9783
Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annual prayer were mentioned before me (and those were): a dog, a donkey and a woman. I said, "You have compared us (women) to donkeys and dogs.
By Allah! I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in (my) bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I disliked to sit and trouble the Prophet. So, I would slip away by the side of his feet."
Narrated 'Aisha: The things which annul the prayers were mentioned before me. They said, "Prayer is annulled by a dog, a donkey and a woman (if they pass in front of the praying people)." I said, "You have made us (i.e. women) dogs.
I saw the Prophet praying while I used to lie in my bed between him and the Qibla. Whenever I was in need of something, I would slip away. for I disliked to face him."
It was narrated from 'Abdullah bin 'Amr:
that the Prophet said: “When anyone of you gets a new wife, a servant, or an animal, let him take hold of the forelock and say
: Allahumma inni as`aluka min khayriha wa khayri ma jubilat 'alaihi, wa 'audhu bika min sharriha wa sharri ma jubilat `alaih (O Allah, I ask You for the goodness within her and the goodness that she is inclined towards, and I seek refuge with you from the evil to which she is inclined
).' ” (Hasan)
Vegetarianism due to compassion for animals is un-Islamic
The unbeliever who prohibits the slaughtering of an animal [for no reason but] to achieve the interest of the animal is incorrect because in so doing he gives preference to a lower, khasis, animal over a higher, nafis
‘Izz ad-Din b. ‘Abd as‑Salam, Qawa’id al-Ahkam fi Masalih al‑Anam (Damascus: Dar al-Tabba, 1992); cited in Izzi Dien, 146.
According to Islamic Law there are no grounds upon which one can argue that animals should not be killed for food. The Islamic legal opinion on this issue is based on clear Qur’anic verses. Muslims are not only prohibited from eating certain food, but also may not choose to prohibit themselves food that is allowed by Islam. Accordingly vegetarianism is not permitted unless on grounds such as unavailability or medical necessity. Vegetarianism is not allowed under the pretext of giving priority to the interest of animals because such decisions are God’s prerogative.
Mawil Izzi Dien, The Environmental Dimensions of Islam (Cambridge, England: Lutterworth, 2000), 146.
Prohibition on keeping dogs except those exempted by shari’ah
It is not permissible for a Muslim to keep a dog, unless he needs this dog for hunting, guarding livestock or guarding crops. [Quotes: Al-Bukhaari (2145), Muslim (2978), and Muslim (2943)]
Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said: This hadeeth shows that it is permissible to keep a dog for hunting and herding livestock, and also for farming.
Ibn Maajah (3640) narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Taalib (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog or an image.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah.
These ahaadeeth indicate that it is haraam to keep a dog, except for those which were exempted by the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
The scholars differed as to how to reconcile between the reports which speak of one qiraat being deducted and those which speak of two qiraats being deducted.
It was said that two qiraats will be deducted if the dog is more harmful and one qiraat will be deducted if it is less so.
And it was said that that at first the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said that one qiraat would be deducted, then the punishment was increased after that, so he said that two qiraats would be deducted in order to put people off from keeping dogs even more.
The qiraat is an amount that is known to Allaah, may He be exalted, and what is meant is that some of the reward for a person’s good deeds will be deducted.
See Sharh Muslim by al-Nawawi, 10/342; Fath al-Baari, 5/9
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen said in Sharh Riyaadh al-Saaliheen, 4/241:
With regard to keeping dogs, this is haraam and is in fact a major sin, because the one who keeps a dog, except those for which an exception has been made, will have two qiraats deducted from his reward every day.
It is by the wisdom of Allaah that like calls to like and evil calls to evil. It is said that the kaafirs, Jews, Christians and communists in the east and the west all keep dogs, Allaah forbid. Each one takes his dog with him and cleans it every day with soap and other cleansing agents. But even if he were to clean it with the water of all the seas in the world and all the soap in the world, it would never become pure! Because its impurity is inherent, and inherent impurity cannot be cleansed except by destroying it and erasing it altogether.
But this is by the wisdom of Allaah, and the wisdom of Allaah is that like calls to like and evil calls to Shaytaan because this kufr of theirs is by the inspiration of the Shaytaan and the command of the Shaytaan, for the Shaytaan enjoins evil, immorality, kufr and misguidance. So they are slaves to the Shaytaan and to their whims and desires, and they are also evil and love vile things. We ask Allaah to guide us and them. End quote.
Is it permissible to keep dogs to guard houses?
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made only three exceptions to the prohibition on keeping dogs: hunting, guarding livestock and guarding crops.
Some scholars are of the view that it is not permissible to keep a dog for any reason other than these three. Others are of the view that it is permissible to draw analogies between these three and similar or more likely cases, such as guarding houses, because if it is permissible to keep dogs to guard livestock and crops, it is more appropriate that it should be permissible to keep dogs to guard houses.
Al-Nawawi said in Sharh Muslim (10/340):
Is it permissible to keep a dog to guard houses, alleys and the like? There are two points of view. The first is that it is not permissible, because of the apparent meaning of the ahaadeeth, which clearly state that keeping dogs is forbidden except for farming, hunting and herding. The more correct view is that it is permissible, by analogy with those three cases, knowing that the reason that is understood from the ahaadeeth is necessity. End quote.
The view that was classed as saheeh by al-Nawawi (may Allaah have mercy on him), that keeping a dog to guard the house is permissible, was also classed as saheeh by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allaah have mercy on him) in Sharh Saheeh Muslim. He said:
The correct view is that it is permissible to keep a dog to guard the house, because if it is permissible to keep a dog in order to benefit from it, as in the case of hunting, it is more appropriate that one be allowed to keep a dog in order to ward off harm and protect oneself.
Killing salamanders by hand
Killing salamanders is prescribed because there is a great deal of evidence to that effect. It should be done with a tool or implement, etc. There is nothing in the reports to specify that they should be killed by hand or to encourage killing them by hand. I do not think that this is correct and there is no report to this effect. That is alien to Islamic teaching and good characteristics.
In al-Saheehayn and elsewhere it is narrated via Sa’eed ibn al-Musayyib that Um Shareek told him that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told her to kill salamanders. According to the report narrated by al-Bukhaari, he said: “It (the salamander) used to blow on Ibraaheem, peace be upon him.”
In Saheeh Muslim it is narrated via ‘Abd al-Razzaaq, Mu’ammar told us from al-Zuhri from ‘Aamir ibn Sa’d from his father that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said enjoined the killing of salamanders and called them mischief doers.
Killing salamanders with one blow brings more reward than killing them with two blows. This was narrated in Saheeh Muslim via Khaalid ibn ‘Abd-Allaah from Suhayl ibn Abi Saalih from his father from Abu Hurayrah, that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever kills a salamander with one blow will have such and such hasanah (good deeds); whoever kills it with the second blow will have such and such hasanah, less than the first; and whoever kills it with three blows will have such and such hasanah – less that the second.”
Shaykh Sulaymaan al-‘Alwaan.
Ibn Maajah (may Allaah have mercy on him) narrated in his Sunan from Saa’ibah the slave woman of al-Faakih ibn al-Mugheerah that she entered upon ‘Aa’ishah and saw a spear sitting there in her house. She said, “O Mother of the Believers, what do you do with this?” She said, “We kill these salamanders with it, because the Prophet of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us that when Ibraaheem was thrown into the fire, there was no animal on earth but it tried to extinguish the fire, except for the salamander, which was blowing on the fire (to keep it burning). So the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded that they should be killed.”
(Sunan Ibn Maajah, 3222. He said in al-Zawaa’id, the isnaad of ‘Aa’ishah’s hadeeth is saheeh, its men are thiqaat (trustworthy)
Ruling on wearing masks or costumes in the shape of animals
Many scholars have granted concessions with regard to children’s toys, even if they are in the shape of an animate being, because of the report narrated by Abu Dawood (4932) from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came back from the campaign to Tabook or Khaybar and there was a curtain over her niche. The wind lifted the edge of the curtain and uncovered ‘Aa’ishah’s toy dolls. He said: “What is this, O ‘Aa’ishah?” She said: My dolls. He saw among them a horse with two wings made of cloth and he said: “What is this that I see in the midst of them?” She said: A horse. He said: “What is this that I see on it?” I said: Two wings. He said: “A horse with wings?” She said: Have you not heard that Sulaymaan had horses with wings? She said: And the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) smiled so broadly that I saw his eyeteeth.
And al-Bukhaari (5779) and Muslim (2440) narrated that ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said: I used to play with dolls in the house of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and I had friends who would play with me…”
This is with regard to toys and costumes, and there is a well-known difference of opinion concerning this matter. Some of the scholars forbade children’s toys if they are in the form of an animal such as a lion or tiger and the like, and some granted a concession allowing that.
See: Ahkaam al-Tasweer fi’l-Fiqh al-Islami, p. 241-261; Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb by Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen, tape no. 374, side A.
According to the view that costumes are permissible in general, if a person wears something that is made in the shape of a bear, for example, and he tries to imitate the way it moves and walks, this includes two things concerning which there are reservations: imitating animals and wearing an image or something on which there is an image.
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said concerning contact lenses:
If they resemble an animal’s eyes, such as those look like the eyes of a cat or a rabbit or any other animal, that is not permissible, because resembling animals is not mentioned in the Qur’aan and Sunnah except in the context of blame. Allah says (interpretation of the meaning):
“And recite (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), but he threw them away; so Shaytaan (Satan) followed him up, and he became of those who went astray.
176. And had We willed, We would surely, have elevated him therewith, but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desire. So his parable is the parable of a dog: if you drive him away, he lolls his tongue out, or if you leave him alone, he (still) lolls his tongue out. Such is the parable of the people who reject Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect.
177. Evil is the parable of the people who rejected Our Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses and signs, etc.), and used to wrong their ownselves”
[al-A ‘raaf 7:175-177].
And He says (interpretation of the meaning):
“The likeness of those who were entrusted with the (obligation of the) Tawraat (Torah) (i.e. to obey its commandments and to practise its laws), but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is as the likeness of a donkey which carries huge burdens of books (but understands nothing from them). How bad is the example of people who deny the Ayaat (proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allaah. And Allaah guides not the people who are Zaalimoon (polytheists, wrongdoers, disbelievers)”
[al-Jumu ‘ah 62:5].
And the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The one who takes back his gift is like the dog that vomits, then returns to its vomit.” And he said: “The bad likeness is not for us.” And he (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The one who speaks on Friday when the imam is delivering the khutbah is like a donkey that carries books.”
End quote from Fataawa Noor ‘ala al-Darb.
See also Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (32/256-260), where there is a detailed fatwa about the prohibition on resembling animals or imitating their movements or sounds.
Shaykh Dr. Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Khudayri, a member of the Faculty of Imam Muhammad ibn Sa‘ood Islamic University (may Allah preserve him) was asked:
We are a group who work in children’s theatre and we offer useful programs in the park or in a theatre for children, where children and their parents come to watch us. We segregate men from women and the children sit in the chairs at the front. Some of the young people wear costumes in the form of a fox or bear or cucumber or orange. Our question is: is acting and wearing these costumes permissible?
He replied: If what you are offering in the theatre is a useful program aimed at benefiting children, and there is no mixing between men and women in that place, then there is nothing wrong with this action. But resembling animals is not something appropriate for the Muslim to do, because it is humiliating a soul that Allah has honoured with reason, and resembling animals is not mentioned in the Qur’aan or Sunnah except in the context of blame. If the costume of this animal is three-dimensional, it is not permissible because it comes under the heading of making images, which is forbidden in the texts. As for costumes resembling inanimate objects, there is nothing wrong with wearing them and using them.
From the Islam Today website.
It is not permissible to wear anything on which there is an image of an animal or human.
It says in Mataalib Ooli’l-Nuha (1/353):
It is haraam for both males and females to wear anything on which there is an image of an animal, because of the hadeeth of Abu Talhah who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) say: “The angels do not enter a house in which there is an image or a dog.” (Agreed upon)
Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked about the ruling on wearing clothes on which there is an image of an animal or human. He replied: It is not permissible for a person to wear a garment on which there is an image of an animal or a human. It is also not permissible for him to wear a headcover or the like on which there is an image of a human or an animal, because it is proven that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “The angels do not enter a house in which there is an image.” End quote.
What appears to be the case is that wearing something that is made in the shape of an animal is more contrary to sharee‘ah than wearing regular clothes like shirts and so on, on which there is the image of an animal.
Thus it is clear that there is no concession with regard to what you have mentioned about wearing a costume in the form of a human or animal, even if the aim is to take part in a program for children so that they can have fun.
Keeping dogs is the habit of the kuffar. Keeping a dog is an imitation of kuffar
According to Islaamic Sharee’ah, it is not permitted to keep a dog except within narrowly-defined limits, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained: "Whoever keeps a dog, his good deeds will decrease every day by one qeeraat (a unit of measurement), unless it is a dog for farming or herding." According to another report: ". . . unless it is a dog for herding sheep, farming or hunting." (Reported by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, 2322)
Dogs are extremely naajis (impure, unclean). The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "If a dog drinks from the vessel of any one of you, let him wash it seven times" (reported by Muslim, no. 279). According to another report: ". . . and clean it the eighth time with earth." (Saheeh Muslim, no. 280).
It is forbidden in Islaam to sell a dog and to receive payment for it, as is reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaari from Abu Mas’oud al-Ansaari: the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade (accepting) the price of a dog. (al-Fath, no. 2237)
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told us not to resemble dogs by placing our forearms on the ground during sujood (prostration), as in reported in the hadeeth narrated by Anas ibn Maalik, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "Do sujood properly; none of you should spread his forearms like a dog does." (al-Bukhaari, Fath, no. 822).
Whoever keeps a dog in his house is denied the blessing of the angels’ presence in his house, as the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: "The angels do not enter a house in which there is a dog." (Reported by al-Bukhaari, 3225).
Keeping dogs nowadays is the habit of the kuffaar, who adopt them as friends, kiss them, let them lick them and their clothes, sleep with them and even leave them money in their wills. Keeping a dog is an imitation of the kuffaar. Some Muslims may claim that they need to keep a dog at home for purposes of protection, to which we respond that nowadays there are burglar alarm systems and other measures one may take for security purposes, and there is no need to keep a dog, praise be to Allaah.
Sheep sacrifice is recommended as a sunnah upon childbirth
29.8 The 'Aqiqa
29.8a The 'aqiqa is recommended
Sacrificing an animal for the birth of a child ('aqiqa) is a recommended sunna. It should be done on the seventh day after the birth of the child, using a sheep similar in age and characteristics to what has been previously mentioned concering sacrifices for the 'id. The day on which the child is born is not counted as one of the seven days. The animal should be sacrificed in the morning.
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