Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Jihad
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Jihad جهاد in Arabic is the masdar or verbal noun of the verb 'jaahada" جاهد. This verb means to "struggle" or to "strive" in Arabic. As such, the word jihad means literally "struggle" or "striving." Within Islamic religious discourse though, the word has a special meaning. جهاد في سبيل الله "jihaad fi sabil Allah" or "jihad on the path of Allah" most usually refers to armed, religious struggle by the Muslim, believing inhabitants of Dar Al-Islam (the house or abode of Islam or the house of submission) against the unbelieving, infidel people of Dar Al-Harb (The house or abode of war). The word can also be used to refer to the inner struggle of the Muslim believe to follow the laws of Allah, but this is the less common meaning. By far the most common meaning is armed warfare in the name of spreading and/or defending Islam. This understanding of jihad continues to be taught in Islamic religious schools, even mainstream ones, to the present day.
Religious Tolerance and Coexistence with Other Religions
Allah has sent Muhammad only to warn non-Muslims.
Leave non-Muslims to their ignorance.
It is best if you do not retaliate against your persecutors, but rather seek refuge in Allah.
Do not argue with innocent Christians and Jews, but rather emphasize your common monotheism.
Permission is given to Muslims to go to war in order to defend themselves.
(They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
Defensive fighting against attacking Arab Meccans is now obligatory, but during Zul-Hajj it's an offense.
Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not.
They question thee (O Muhammad) with regard to warfare in the sacred month. Say: Warfare therein is a great (transgression), but to turn (men) from the way of Allah, and to disbelieve in Him and in the Inviolable Place of Worship, and to expel His people thence, is a greater with Allah; for persecution is worse than killing. And they will not cease from fighting against you till they have made you renegades from your religion, if they can. And whoso becometh a renegade and dieth in his disbelief: such are they whose works have fallen both in the world and the Hereafter. Such are rightful owners of the Fire: they will abide therein.
You should fight in defense and rouse other believers to fight as well. If the group of Muslims is divided (betrayal) then do not join the hypocrites, instead seize them and slay them wherever ye find them.
Then fight in Allah's cause - Thou art held responsible only for thyself - and rouse the believers. It may be that Allah will restrain the fury of the Unbelievers; for Allah is the strongest in might and in punishment.
Whoever recommends and helps a good cause becomes a partner therein: And whoever recommends and helps an evil cause, shares in its burden: And Allah hath power over all things.
When a (courteous) greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or (at least) of equal courtesy. Allah takes careful account of all things.
Allah! There is no god but He: of a surety He will gather you together against the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt. And whose word can be truer than Allah's?
Why should ye be divided into two parties about the Hypocrites? Allah hath upset them for their (evil) deeds. Would ye guide those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way? For those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way, never shalt thou find the Way.
After the existing treaties have expired Muslims are to make no more treaties with pagans and they are to subdue or kill those who do not accept Islam.
Travel freely in the land four months, and know that ye cannot escape Allah and that Allah will confound the disbelievers (in His Guidance).
And an announcement from Allah and His Messenger, to the people (assembled) on the day of the Great Pilgrimage,- that Allah and His Messenger dissolve (treaty) obligations with the Pagans. If then, ye repent, it were best for you; but if ye turn away, know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah. And proclaim a grievous penalty to those who reject Faith.
Excepting those of the idolaters with whom ye (Muslims) have a treaty, and who have since abated nothing of your right nor have supported anyone against you. (As for these), fulfil their treaty to them till their term. Lo! Allah loveth those who keep their duty (unto Him).Then, when the sacred months have passed, slay the idolaters wherever ye find them, and take them (captive), and besiege them, and prepare for them each ambush. But if they repent and establish worship and pay the poor-due, then leave their way free. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
Fight non-Muslims, even Christians and Jews, until they are subdued. Fight the Christians and Jews until they submit because they have corrupted Allah's teachings and they are corrupt.
And the Jews say: Ezra is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: The Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths. They imitate the saying of those who disbelieved of old. Allah (Himself) fighteth against them. How perverse are they!
They have taken as lords beside Allah their rabbis and their monks and the Messiah son of Mary, when they were bidden to worship only One Allah. There is no Allah save Him. Be He Glorified from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him)!
Fain would they put out the light of Allah with their mouths, but Allah disdaineth (aught) save that He shall perfect His light, however much the disbelievers are averse.
He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the Religion of Truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion, however much the idolaters may be averse.
O ye who believe! Lo! many of the (Jewish) rabbis and the (Christian) monks devour the wealth of mankind wantonly and debar (men) from the way of Allah. They who hoard up gold and silver and spend it not in the way of Allah, unto them give tidings (O Muhammad) of a painful doom,On the day when it will (all) be heated in the fire of hell, and their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be branded therewith (and it will be said unto them): Here is that which ye hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what ye used to hoard.
Now hath Allah lightened your burden, for He knoweth that there is weakness in you. So if there be of you a steadfast hundred they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a thousand (steadfast) they shall overcome two thousand by permission of Allah. Allah is with the steadfast.It is not for any prophet to have captives until he hath made slaughter in the land. Ye desire the lure of this world and Allah desireth (for you) the Hereafter, and Allah is Mighty, Wise.
Forced Conversion to Islam, Submission, or Expulsion
Scholars on Jihad
- Jihad (Primary Sources) - A hub page that leads to other articles related to Jihad (Primary Sources)