Qur'an, Hadith and Scholars:Defensive Jihad
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Medieval Islamic scholars categorised Jihad into two forms: One form involved expanding the realm of Islam, called in Arabic جهاد الطلب "jihad at-talab", "the jihad of request" (referring to the invitation to Islam which must be sent to the opposing infidels before hostilities may commence). Muslims are also commanded by the Qur'an to fight to defend the religion (and the Islamic State) from outside aggressors, and this too constitutes the holy duty of jihad. Islamic modernist scholars and some academic scholars regard this division as a product of the expansionist ideology prevalent in the emerging empire and early Caliphates, and that the Quran itself only sanctions defensive and pre-emptive fighting, with the battles mentioned in the earliest sources aligning with these principles (though this is certainly contested).
Permission is given to the believers to go to war in order to defend themselves.
To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid;-
(They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right,- (for no cause) except that they say, "our Lord is Allah". Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another, there would surely have been pulled down monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mosques, in which the name of Allah is commemorated in abundant measure. Allah will certainly aid those who aid his (cause);- for verily Allah is full of Strength, Exalted in Might, (able to enforce His Will).
If attacked then believers are to fight against their attackers until the attackers desist from fighting, stop persecuting Muslims and Islam to be established.
Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.
And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.
But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.
Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not.
They question thee (O Muhammad) with regard to warfare in the sacred month. Say: Warfare therein is a great (transgression), but to turn (men) from the way of Allah, and to disbelieve in Him and in the Inviolable Place of Worship, and to expel His people thence, is a greater with Allah; for persecution is worse than killing. And they will not cease from fighting against you till they have made you renegades from your religion, if they can. And whoso becometh a renegade and dieth in his disbelief: such are they whose works have fallen both in the world and the Hereafter. Such are rightful owners of the Fire: they will abide therein.
Cut the necks and finger-tips of those who contend against Allah and Muhammad and never turn your backs to them.
Remember thy Lord inspired the angels (with the message): "I am with you: give firmness to the Believers: I will instil terror into the hearts of the Unbelievers: smite ye above their necks and smite all their finger-tips off them."
This because they contended against Allah and His Messenger: If any contend against Allah and His Messenger, Allah is strict in punishment.
Thus (will it be said): "Taste ye then of the (punishment): for those who resist Allah, is the penalty of the Fire."
O ye who believe! when ye meet the Unbelievers in hostile array, never turn your backs to them.
If any do turn his back to them on such a day - unless it be in a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own)- he draws on himself the wrath of Allah, and his abode is Hell,- an evil refuge (indeed)!
It is not ye who slew them; it was Allah: when thou threwest (a handful of dust), it was not thy act, but Allah's: in order that He might test the Believers by a gracious trial from Himself: for Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).
The believers should fight in defense and rouse other believers to fight as well. If the group of Muslims is divided (betrayal) then do not join the hypocrites, instead seize them and slay them wherever ye find them.
Then fight in Allah's cause - Thou art held responsible only for thyself - and rouse the believers. It may be that Allah will restrain the fury of the Unbelievers; for Allah is the strongest in might and in punishment.
Whoever recommends and helps a good cause becomes a partner therein: And whoever recommends and helps an evil cause, shares in its burden: And Allah hath power over all things.
When a (courteous) greeting is offered you, meet it with a greeting still more courteous, or (at least) of equal courtesy. Allah takes careful account of all things.
Allah! There is no god but He: of a surety He will gather you together against the Day of Judgment, about which there is no doubt. And whose word can be truer than Allah's?
Why should ye be divided into two parties about the Hypocrites? Allah hath upset them for their (evil) deeds. Would ye guide those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way? For those whom Allah hath thrown out of the Way, never shalt thou find the Way.
The unbelievers are only fought on the condition that they declare war according to the majority of scholars, as is evident in the Book and Sunnah.
The Prophet never forced the religion upon anyone, but rather he only fought those who waged war against him and fought him. As for those who made peace with him or conducted a truce, then he never fought them and he never compelled them to enter his religion
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