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In Islam Muhammad is known as uswa hasana, al-Insān al-Kāmil, meaning in Arabic that he is the 'perfect human' who is 'worthy of imitation' . As such, all of his deeds, actions, thoughts, and practices are the perfect examplars for all humans in every time in every age. For this reason, his Sunnah or traditions is one of the basic building blocks of Islamic Law (the other being the Qur'an). This tradition is preserved mostly in the Hadith collections of Muhaddiths such as Bukhari, who wrote his books in the middle of the 9th century, and the collectors of the Sira histories of the prophet's military campaigns such as Ibn Ishaq. These sources impart to their readers many ideas, attributes, and habits of the prophet, all of which are held up by the ulemaa' as model behavior for all of mankind.
The hadiths and sirah traditions about Muhammad are largely intended to portray Muhammad in a way that would seem positive to believers of the early Islamic era. From a modern secular point of view, many of these reports do not necessarily present Muhammad in a favourable light. Either way, hadiths and sirah material in general are considered to be very unreliable sources of historical information in modern academic scholarship, as well as by Islamic modernist scholars.
Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example
(أسوة حسنة, uswa hasana
) for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembereth Allah much.
Muhammad had been a Poor Ophan
Did He not find you an orphan and give [you] refuge?
And He found you lost and guided [you],
And He found you poor and made [you] self-sufficient.
Prophet, Messenger, Warner
Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.
Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allah at all; but Allah will reward the grateful.
Say, "I am not something original among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am not but a clear warner."
And [mention] when Jesus, the son of Mary, said, "O children of Israel, indeed I am the messenger of Allah to you confirming what came before me of the Torah and bringing good tidings of a messenger to come after me, whose name is Ahmad." But when he came to them with clear evidences, they said, "This is obvious magic."
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers - so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.
An example to follow
Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembereth Allah much.
And indeed, you are of a great moral character.
Obedience to the Prophet
Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful." Say, "Obey Allah and the Messenger." But if they turn away - then indeed, Allah does not like the disbelievers
He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah; but those who turn away - We have not sent you over them as a guardian.
Many other verses implore listeners to obey Allah and his Messenger, which suggests this was an ongoing problem.
Allegations Against Muhammad
And those who disbelieve say, "This [Qur'an] is not except a falsehood he invented, and another people assisted him in it." But they have committed an injustice and a lie. And they say, "Legends of the former peoples which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon." Say, [O Muhammad], "It has been revealed by He who knows [every] secret within the heavens and the earth. Indeed, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful."
A significant number of Quranic verses were of a distinctly personal benefit to the prophet. An example concerns Muhammad's exemption on the limitation of four wives for believing men set out in Quran 4:3.
"O Prophet (Muhammad)! Verily, We have made lawful to you your wives, to whom you have paid their Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), and those (captives or slaves) whom your right hand possesses -- whom God has given to you, and the daughters of your 'Amm (paternal uncles) and the daughters of your 'Ammah (paternal aunts) and the daughters of your Khâl (maternal uncles) and the daughters of your Khâlah (maternal aunts) who migrated (from Makkah) with you, and a believing woman if she offers herself to the Prophet, and the Prophet wishes to marry her; a privilege for you only, not for the (rest of) the believers
Good Character and Piety
Mercy and Good Manners
Abu Abdullah Al-Jadali narrated:
"I asked 'Aishah about the character of the Messenger of Allah. She said: 'He was not obscene, nor uttering obscenities, nor screaming in the markets, he would not return an evil with an evil, but rather he was pardoning and forgiving."
Kindness to Children
I served the Prophet (ﷺ) for ten years, and he never said to me, "Uf" (a minor harsh word denoting impatience) and never blamed me by saying, "Why did you do so or why didn't you do so?"
Narrated Abu Qatada:
The Prophet (ﷺ) came out towards us, while carrying Umamah, the daughter of Abi Al-As (his granddaughter) over his shoulder. He prayed, and when he wanted to bow, he put her down, and when he stood up, he lifted her up.
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that:
The Prophet said to Hasan: "O Allah, I love him, so love him and love those who love him." He said: "And he hugged him to his chest."
Calmness, Pleasantness, Welcoming his Daughter
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin:
I never saw anyone more like the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) in respect of gravity, calm deportment, pleasant disposition - according to al-Hasan's version: in respect of talk and speech. Al-Hasan did not mention gravity, calm deportment, pleasant disposition - than Fatimah, may Allah honour her face. When she came to visit him (the Prophet) he got up to (welcome) her, took her by the hand, kissed her and made her sit where he was sitting; and when he went to visit her, she got up to (welcome) him, took him by the hand, kissed him, and made him sit where she was sitting.
Dedication to Prayer
The Prophet (ﷺ) used to offer prayer at night (for such a long time) that his feet used to crack. I said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! Why do you do it since Allah has forgiven you your faults of the past and those to follow?" He said, "Shouldn't I love to be a thankful slave (of Allah)?' When he became old, he prayed while sitting, but if he wanted to perform a bowing, he would get up, recite (some other verses) and then perform the bowing.
Visited his Sick Jewish servant
A young Jewish boy used to serve the Prophet (ﷺ) and he became sick. So the Prophet (ﷺ) went to visit him. He sat near his head and asked him to embrace Islam. The boy looked at his father, who was sitting there; the latter told him to obey Abul-Qasim and the boy embraced Islam. The Prophet (ﷺ) came out saying: "Praises be to Allah Who saved the boy from the Hell-fire."
Importance of Love for the Prophet above All Others
The Prophet (ﷺ) said "None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind."
[...] So the Quraish and the Ansar became angry and said, "He (i.e. the Prophet, ) gives the chief of Najd and does not give us." The Prophet said, "I give them so as to attract their hearts (to Islam). [...]
Narrated Um Kulthum bint `Uqba:
That she heard Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) saying, "He who makes peace between the people by inventing good information or saying good things, is not a liar."
Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d:
Once the people of Quba fought with each other till they threw stones on each other. When Allah's Apostle was informed about it, he said, "Let us go to bring about a reconciliation between them."
Controversial among some of the believers at the time, the treaty of Hudaybiyyah was an important moment in early Islamic history.
Narrated Al-Bara bin `Azib:
When Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) concluded a peace treaty with the people of Hudaibiya, `Ali bin Abu Talib wrote the document and he mentioned in it, "Muhammad, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) ." The pagans said, "Don't write: 'Muhammad, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)', for if you were an apostle we would not fight with you." Allah's Apostle asked `Ali to rub it out, but `Ali said, "I will not be the person to rub it out." Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) rubbed it out and made peace with them on the condition that the Prophet (ﷺ) and his companions would enter Mecca and stay there for three days, and that they would enter with their weapons in cases.
Excusing Blasphemy Killing
Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas: A blind man had a slave-mother who used to abuse the Prophet (peace be upon him) and disparage him. He forbade her but she did not stop. He rebuked her but she did not give up her habit. One night she began to slander the Prophet (peace be upon him) and abuse him. So he took a dagger, placed it on her belly, pressed it, and killed her. A child who came between her legs was smeared with the blood that was there.
When the morning came, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was informed about it.
He assembled the people and said: I adjure by Allah the man who has done this action and I adjure him by my right to him that he should stand up. Jumping over the necks of the people and trembling the man stood up.
He sat before the Prophet (peace be upon him) and said: Apostle of Allah! I am her master; she used to abuse you and disparage you. I forbade her, but she did not stop, and I rebuked her, but she did not abandon her habit. I have two sons like pearls from her, and she was my companion. Last night she began to abuse and disparage you. So I took a dagger, put it on her belly and pressed it till I killed her.
Thereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Oh be witness, no retaliation is payable for her blood.
See also Sunan an-Nasa'i 5:37:4075
Prophecising about Fighting Jews
Technically, Arabs, Ethiopians, and Assyrians can be described as Semitic people, however in the context of "Anti-Semitism" it is commonly understood to refer to people who identify as Jewish.
Abu Huraira reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.
A man asked permission to see the Prophet. He said, "Let Him come in; What an evil man of the tribe he is! (Or, What an evil brother of the tribe he is). But when he entered, the Prophet (ﷺ) spoke to him gently in a polite manner. I said to him, "O Allah's Apostle! You have said what you have said, then you spoke to him in a very gentle and polite manner? The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "The worse people, in the sight of Allah are those whom the people leave (undisturbed) to save themselves from their dirty language."
Falling Under the Influence of Magic
A'isha reported that a Jew from among the Jews of Banu Zuraiq who was called Labid b. al-A'sam cast spell upon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) with the result that he (under the influence of the spell
) felt that he had been doing something whereas in fact he had not been doing that. (This state of affairs lasted) until one day or during one night Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) made supplication (to dispel its effects)...
Anas reported that a Jewess came to Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) with poisoned mutton and he took of that what had been brought to him (Allah's Messenger). (When the effect of this poison were felt by him) he called for her and asked her about that, whereupon she said:
I had determined to kill you. Thereupon he said: Allah will never give you the power to do it. He (the narrator) said that they (the Companion's of the Holy Prophet) said: Should we not kill her? Thereupon he said: No. He (Anas) said: I felt (the affects of this poison) on the uvula of Allah's Messenger.
....Narrated 'Aisha: The Prophet in his ailment in which he died, used to say, "O 'Aisha! I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaibar, and at this time, I feel as if my aorta is being cut from that poison."
Command to Beat Children who Don't Pray
Narrated As-Saburah: The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Command a boy to pray when he reaches the age of seven years. When he becomes ten years old, then beat him
Jabir b. Samura reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: I recognise the stone in Mecca which used to pay me salutations before my advent as a Prophet and I recognise that even now.
(the wife the Prophet) Allah's Apostle said, "O Aisha! This is Gabriel sending his greetings to you." I said, "Peace, and Allah's Mercy be on him." 'Aisha added: The Prophet used to see things which we used not to see.
Love and Hate for the Sake of Allah
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The best of the actions is to love for the sake of Allah and to hate for the sake of Allah.
"The strongest bond of faith is loyalty for the sake of Allah and opposition for His sake, love for the sake of Allah and enmity for His sake."
Fear of Homosexuality
Narrated Jabir: That the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "What I fear most from my Ummah is the behavior of the people of Lut."
Recommended weeping instead of laughing:
The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "If you knew that which I know, you would laugh little and weep much."
Prohibited laughing at farts:
...“Then he advised against laughing when passing gas
, he said: ‘One of you should not laugh at what he himself does.’”
Laughed after seeing genitals of a killed man:
'Amir b. Sa'd reported oLi the authority of his father that Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) gathered for him on the Day of Uhud his parents when a polytheist had set fire to (i. e. attacked fiercely) the Muslims. Thereupon Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) said to him:
(Sa'd), shoot an arrow, (Sa'd), may my mother and father be taken as ransom for you. I drew an arrow and I shot a featherless arrow at him aiming his side that he fell down and his private parts were exposed. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) laughed that I saw his front teeth.
Laughed while cursing Jews:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
I saw the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) sitting neat the Black stone (or at a corner of the Ka'bah). He said: He (the Prophet) raised his eyes towards the heaven, and laughed, and he said: May Allah curse the Jews! He said this three times. Allah declared unlawful for them the fats (of the animals which died a natural death); they sold them and they enjoyed the price they received for them. When Allah declared eating of thing forbidden for the people, He declares it price also forbidden for them. The version of Khalid b. 'Abd Allah al-Tahhan does not have the words "I saw". It has: "May Allah destroy the Jews!"
Laughed, when someone told him about a dream of having head cut off:
Jabir reported that a person came to Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) and said:
Allah's Messenger, I have seen in the state of sleep as if my head had been cut off. Thereupon Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) laughed
and said: When the satan plays with any one of you in the state of sleep, do not mention it to the people; and in the hadith transmitted by Abu Bakr (the words are): "If one of you is played with, and he did not make any mention of the word: "Satan."
Prohibited telling a lie as a joke:
Narrated Mu'awiyah ibn Jaydah al-Qushayri:
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: Woe to him who tells things, speaking falsely, to make people laugh thereby. Woe to him! Woe to him!.
Prohibited laughing a lot:
It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:
“Do not laugh a lot, for laughing a lot deadens the heart.”
Polygamy Disallowed for his Son in Law
Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
I heard Allah's Apostle who was on the pulpit, saying, "Banu Hisham bin Al-Mughira have requested me to allow them to marry their daughter to Ali bin Abu Talib, but I don't give permission
, and will not give permission unless 'Ali bin Abi Talib divorces my daughter in order to marry their daughter, because Fatima is a part of my body, and I hate what she hates to see, and what hurts her, hurts me.
Urinating while Facing the Qiblah
It was narrated that Jabir said:
"The Messenger of Allah forbade facing the Qiblah when urinating. But I saw him, one year before he died, facing the Qiblah (while urinating)."
Narrated 'Aisha: The Messenger of Allah never left in his house anything containing the figure of a cross without destroying it.
Abu Wa'il narrated: "Ali said to Abu Al-Hayyaj Al-Asadi: 'I am dispatching you with what the Prophet dispatched me: "That you not leave an elevated grave without leveling it, nor an image without erasing it."
Narrated 'Abdullah bin Masud: The Prophet entered Mecca and (at that time) there were three hundred-and-sixty idols around the Ka'ba. He started stabbing the idols with a stick he had in his hand and reciting: "Truth (Islam) has come and Falsehood (disbelief) has vanished."
The following hadith is used to support the ruling that heads of statues must be destroyed even if they are not idols:
Narrated Abu Hurayrah: The Messenger of Allah said: Gabriel came to me and said: I came to you last night and was prevented from entering simply because there were images at the door, for there was a decorated curtain with images on it in the house, and there was a dog in the house. So order the head of the image which is in the house to be cut off
so that it resembles the form of a tree; order the curtain to be cut up and made into two cushions spread out on which people may tread; and order the dog to be turned out. The Messenger of Allah then did so. The dog belonged to al-Hasan or al-Husayn and was under their couch. So he ordered it to be turned out. Abu Dawud said: Al-Nadd means a thing on which clothes are placed like a couch.
Equal Retaliation for Murder only of Believers
Muhammad is widely reported both to have said that if a Muslim commits murder, then he should be killed as a retribution:
It was narrated from 'Aishah, the Mother of the Believers, that the Messenger of Allah said:
"It is not permissible to kill a Muslim except in one of three cases: A adulterer who has been married, who is to be stoned; a man who kills a Muslim deliberately; and a man who leaves Islam and wages war against Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, and His Messenger, who is to be killed, crucified or banished from the land."
But if he murdered a disbeliever, there is no such retaliation:
It was narrated from Ibn 'Abbas that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:
”A believer should not be killed in retaliation for the murder of a disbeliever, and a person who has a treaty should not be killed during the time of the treaty.”
Killing Post-Pubescent Males of Banu Qurayzah
Narrated Atiyyah al-Qurazi: I was among the captives of Banu Qurayzah. They (the Companions) examined us, and those who had begun to grow hair (pubes) were killed, and those who had not were not killed. I was among those who had not grown hair.
Women and Children as Collateral Damage
Hadiths record that Muhammad disapproved of the killing of women and children during expeditions (also Sahih Muslim 19:4319).
During some of the Ghazawat of the Prophet (ﷺ) a woman was found killed. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) disapproved the killing of women and children.
Although when asked, he excused the probable exposure of women and children to danger during an attack.
Narrated As-Sab bin Jaththama: The Prophet passed by me at a place called Al-Abwa or Waddan, and was asked whether it was permissible to attack the pagan warriors at night with the probability of exposing their women and children to danger. The Prophet replied, "They (i.e. women and children) are from them (i.e. pagans)."
I also heard the Prophet saying, "The institution of Hima is invalid except for Allah and His Apostle."
A more specific hadith quotes the same narrator stating that this involved women and children who were trampled over with horses during the attack:
Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:
"I was informed by As-Sa'b bin Jaththamah who said: " I said: "O Messenger of Allah our horses trampled over women and children of the idolaters." He said: "They are from their fathers.'"
[Abu 'Eisa said:] This Hadith is Hasan Sahih.
Speech and Magic
Muhammad said that eloquent speech is magic:
'Two men came from the east and delivered speeches, and the Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Some eloquent speech has the in fluency of magic (e.g., some people refuse to do something and then a good eloquent speaker addresses them and then they agree to do that very thing after his speech). "' (Muhsin Khan translation)
Muhammad said only 4 Arabic words in this hadith ("إِنَّ مِنَ الْبَيَانِ لَسِحْرً"):
إِنَّ (inna) - Indeed
مِنَ (min) - from
الْبَيَانِ (al-bayaan) - eloquent speech
لَسِحْرً (la-sihr) - (is) surely magic
And he was giving eloquent speeches:
The Prophet (swt) said, "I have been given the keys of eloquent speech and given victory with terror.
One day Messenger of Allah (swt) delivered us a very eloquent Khutbah (sermon)
on account of which eyes shed tears and hearts were full of tears...
So he was practicing magic (by his own definition).
Coincidentally, Allah hates "the eloquent one":
The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: Allah
, the Exalted, hates the eloquent one
among men who moves his tongue round (among his teeth), as cattle do.
Mary Mother of Jesus will be his Wife in Heaven
Muhammad said, “In heaven, Mary mother of Jesus, will be one of my wives.”
"The Messenger of God ... said, ‘God married me in paradise to Mary the daughter of 'Imran and to the wife of Pharaoh and the sister of Moses.’" 
In the morning they submitted to the apostle’s judgement and al-Aus leapt up and said, ‘O Apostle, they are our allies, not allies of Khazraj, and you know how you recently treated the allies of our brethren.’ Now the apostle had besieged B, Qaynuqa who were allies of al-Khazraj and when they submitted to his judgement 'Abdullah b. Ubayy b. Salul had asked him for them and he gave them to him; so when al-Aus spoke thus the apostle said. Will you be satisfied, O Aus, if one of your own number pronounces judgement on them?’ When they agreed he said that Sa'd b.
Muadh was the man. The apostle had put Sa'd in a tent belonging to a woman of Aslam called Rufayda inside his mosque. She used to nurse the wounded and see to those Muslims who needed care. The apostle had told his people when Sa'd had been wounded by an arrow at the battle of the Trench to put him in Rufayda’s tent until he could visit him later. When the apostle appointed him umpire in the matter of B. Qurayza, his people came to him and mounted him on a donkey on which they had put a leather cushion, he being a corpulent man. As they brought him to the apostle they said, ‘Deal kindly with your friends, for the apostle has made you umpire for that very purpose.’ When they persisted he said, ‘The time 689 has come for Sa d in the cause of God, not to care for any man’s censure.’ Some of his people who were there went back to the quarter of B. 'Abdu’l-Ashhal and announced to them the death of B. Qurayza before Sa'd got to them, because of what they had heard him say.
When Sa’d reached the apostle and the Muslims the apostle told them to get up to greet their leader. The muhajirs of Quraysh thought that the apostle meant the Ansar, while the latter thought that he meant everyone, so they got up and said ‘O Abu 'Amr, the apostle has entrusted to you the affair of your allies that you may give judgement concerning them, Sa'd asked ‘Do you covenant by Allah that you accept the judgement I pronounce on them ?’ They said Yes, and he said, ‘And is it incumbent on the one who is here?’ (looking) in the direction of the apostle not mentioning him out of respect, and the apostle answered Yes. Sa'd said Then I give judgement that the men should be killed, the property divided, and the women and children taken as captives.'
'Asim b. 'Umar b. Qatada told me from 'Abdu’l-Rahman b. Amr b. Sa'd b. Mu'adh from 'Alqama b. Waqqas al-Laythi that the apostle said to Sa'd, ‘You have given the judgement of Allah above the seven heavens'.
Then they surrendered, and the apostle confined them in Medina in the quarter of d. al-Harith, a woman of B. al-Najjar. Then the apostle went out to the market of Medina (which is still its market today) and dug trenches in it. Then he sent for them and struck off their heads m those trenches as they were brought out to him in batches. Among them was the enemy of Allah Huyayy b. Akhtab and Ka'b b. Asad their chief. There were 600 or 700 in all, though some put the figure as high as 800 or 900. As they were being taken out in batches to the apostle they asked Ka b what he thought would be done with them. He replied, ‘Will you never understand? Don’t you see that the summoner never stops and those, who are taken away do not return? By Allah it is death!’ This went on until the apostle made an end of them.
Huyayy was brought out wearing a flowered robe in which he had made holes about the size of the finger-tips in every part so that it should not be taken from him as spoil, with his hands bound to his neck by a rope. When he saw the apostle he said, ‘By God, I do not blame myself for opposing you, but he who forsakes God will be forsaken. Then he went to the men and said, ‘God’s command is right. A book and a decree and massacre have been written against the Sons of Israel. Then he sat down and his head was struck off.
Jabal b. Jawwal al-Tha'labl said:
- Ibn Akhtab did not blame himself
- But he who forsakes God will be forsaken.
- He fought until he justified himself
- And struggled to the utmost in pursuit of glory.
Muhammad b. Ja'far b. al-Zubayr told me from 'Urwa b. al-Zubayr that ‘A’isha said: ‘Only one of their women was killed. She was actually with me and was talking with me and laughing immoderately as the apostle was killing her men in the market when suddenly an unseen voice called her name. ‘Good heavens,’ I cried, ‘what is the matter?’ ‘I am to be killed,’ she replied. ‘What for?’ I asked. ‘Because of something I did,’ she answered. She was taken away and beheaded. ‘A’isha used to say, ‘I shall never forget my wonder at her good spirits and her loud laughter when all the time she knew' that she would be killed’.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 463-465, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 239-242, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
The Exalted Position of the Prophet
Narrated Abu Huraira: "Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hands my life is, none of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father and his children.
Narrated Anas: The Prophet said "None of you will have faith till he loves me more than his father, his children and all mankind."
The apostle instituted brotherhood between his fellow emigrants and the helpers, and he said according to what I have heard—and I appeal to God lest I should attribute to him words that he did not say—‘Let each of you take a brother in God.’ He himself Took 'Ali by the hand and said, This is my brother.’ So God’s apostle, the lord of the sent ones and leader of the God-fearing, apostle of the Lord of the worlds, the peerless and unequalled
, and 'Ali b. Abu Talib became brothers. Hamza, the lion of God and the lion of his apostle and his uncle, became the brother of Zayd b. Haritha the apostle’s freedman. To him Hamza gave his last testament on the day of Uhud when battle was imminent in case he should meet his death. Ja'far b. Abu Talib—the ‘one of the wings’ who was to fly in Paradise—and Mu'adh b. Jabal brother of B. Salama became brothers.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 233, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 505, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
When a Muslim is engaged in the prayer (salat), it is forbidden for him to respond to people who try to speak to him while he is praying until he is finished.
However, from the following Hadiths you will see that Muhammad wanted to be an exception to the rule. He tells Muslims that even if they are performing salat to Allah, they must respond to him (Muhammad) if he calls them. He invokes Quran 8:24 to prove his case.
Narrated Abu Sa`id Al-Mualla: While I was praying, the Prophet (ﷺ) passed by and called me, but I did not go to him till I had finished my prayer. When I went to him, he said, "What prevented you from coming?" I said, "I was praying." He said, "Didn't Allah say" "O you who believes Give your response to Allah (by obeying Him) and to His Apostle." (8.24) Then he added, "Shall I tell you the most superior Sura in the Qur'an before I go out of the mosque?" When the Prophet (ﷺ) intended to go out (of the Mosque), I reminded him and he said, "That is: "Al hamdu-li l-lahi Rabbil-`alamin (Surat-al-fatiha)' which is the seven oft repeated verses (Al-Mathani) and the Grand Qur'an which has been given to me."
Narrated Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu'alla: While I was praying in the Mosque, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) called me but I did not respond to him. Later I said, "O Allah's Messenger (ﷺ)! I was praying." He said, "Didn't Allah say'--"Give your response to Allah (by obeying Him) and to His Apostle when he calls you." (8.24) He then said to me, "I will teach you a Sura which is the greatest Sura in the Qur'an, before you leave the Mosque." Then he got hold of my hand, and when he intended to leave (the Mosque), I said to him, "Didn't you say to me, 'I will teach you a Sura which is the greatest Sura in the Qur'an?' He said, "Al-Hamdu-Li l-lah Rabbi-l-`alamin (i.e. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds) which is Al-Sab'a Al-Mathani (i.e. seven repeatedly recited Verses) and the Grand Qur'an which has been given to me."
Narrated Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu'alla: While I was praying, Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) passed me and called me, but I did not go to him until I had finished the prayer. Then I went to him, and he said, "What prevented you from coming to me? Didn't Allah say:-- "O you who believe! Answer the call of Allah (by obeying Him) and His Apostle when He calls you?" He then said, "I will inform you of the greatest Sura in the Qur'an before I leave (the mosque)." When Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) got ready to leave (the mosque), I reminded him. He said, "It is: 'Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.' (i.e. Surat-al-Fatiha) As-sab'a Al-Mathani (the seven repeatedly recited Verses).
The Prophet's Weight
The apostle made for a rock on the mountain to climb it. He had become heavy by reason of his age, and moreover he had put on two coats of mail, so when he tried to get up he could not do so. Talha b. ‘Ubaydullah squatted beneath him and lifted him up until he settled comfortably upon it.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 383, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 86, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
Marrying a Child
A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) reported: Allah's Apostle (Mohammad) married me when I was six years old, and I was admitted to his house when I was nine years old.
And what Allah restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns - it is for Allah and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives and orphans and the [stranded] traveler - so that it will not be a perpetual distribution among the rich from among you. And whatever the Messenger has given you - take; and what he has forbidden you - refrain from. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.
Narrated Ibn 'Umar that the Prophet (SA) said, "My livelihood is under the shade of my spear,(1) and he who disobeys my orders will be humiliated by paying Jizya"
Footnote: (1) "Under the shade of my spear" means "from war booty"
Narrated Qatada: Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number.
" I asked Anas, "Had the Prophet the strength for it?" Anas replied, "We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men)." And Sa'id said on the authority of Qatada that Anas had told him about nine wives only (not eleven).
The Prophet's Revelations and His Own Benefit
Muhammad [through convenient “revelations” from Allah] gave himself rights and immunities that no other Muslim ever received.
Narrated Aisha: I used to look down upon those ladies who had given themselves to Allah's Apostle and I used to say, "Can a lady give herself (to a man)?" But when Allah revealed: "You (O Muhammad) can postpone (the turn of) whom you will of them (your wives), and you may receive any of them whom you will; and there is no blame on you if you invite one whose turn you have set aside (temporarily).' (33.51) I said (to the Prophet), "I feel that your Lord hastens in fulfilling your wishes and desires."
Muhammad was naked while building the Kaba:
Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah:
While Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) was carrying stones (along) with the people of Mecca for (the building of) the Ka`ba wearing an Izar (waist-sheet cover), his uncle Al-`Abbas said to him, "O my nephew! (It would be better) if you take off your Izar and put it over your shoulders underneath the stones." So he took off his Izar and put it over his shoulders, but he fell unconscious and since then he had never been seen naked.
Description of Black People
Narrated Anas bin Malik: Allah's Apostle said, "You should listen to and obey, your ruler even if he was an Ethiopian (black) slave whose head looks like a raisin.
Rape and Sexual Consent
Narrated 'Abdul 'Aziz: Anas said, 'When Allah's Apostle invaded Khaibar, we offered the Fajr prayer there yearly in the morning) when it was still dark. The Prophet rode and Abu Talha rode too and I was riding behind Abu Talha. The Prophet passed through the lane of Khaibar quickly and my knee was touching the thigh of the Prophet . He uncovered his thigh and I saw the whiteness of the thigh of the Prophet. When he entered the town, he said, 'Allahu Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we approach near a (hostile) nation (to fight) then evil will be the morning of those who have been warned.' He repeated this thrice. The people came out for their jobs and some of them said, 'Muhammad (has come).' (Some of our companions added, "With his army.") We conquered Khaibar, took the captives, and the booty was collected. Dihya came and said, 'O Allah's Prophet! Give me a slave girl from the captives.' The Prophet said, 'Go and take any slave girl.' He took Safiya bint Huyai. A man came to the Prophet and said, 'O Allah's Apostles! You gave Safiya bint Huyai to Dihya and she is the chief mistress of the tribes of Quraiza and An-Nadir and she befits none but you.' So the Prophet said, 'Bring him along with her.' So Dihya came with her and when the Prophet saw her, he said to Dihya, 'Take any slave girl other than her from the captives.' Anas added: The Prophet then manumitted her and married her."
Thabit asked Anas, "O Abu Hamza! What did the Prophet pay her (as Mahr)?" He said, "Her self was her Mahr for he manumitted her and then married her." Anas added, "While on the way, Um Sulaim dressed her for marriage (ceremony) and at night she sent her as a bride to the Prophet .
They came to the apostle and called upon him to answer these questions. He said to them, 'I will give you your answer tomorrow,' but he did not say, 'if God will.' So they went away; and the apostle, so they say, waited for fifteen days without a revelation from God on the matter, nor did Gabriel come to him, so that the people of Mecca began to spread evil reports, saying, 'Muhammad promised us an answer on the morrow, and today is the fifteenth day we have remained without an answer.' This delay caused the apostle great sorrow, until Gabriel brought him the Chapter of the Cave, in which he reproaches him for his sadness, and told him the answers of their questions, the youths, the mighty traveller, and the spirit.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, pp. 136-137, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 1, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, pp. 301-302, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
Narrated Ibn 'Umar
During the lifetime of the Prophet we used to avoid chatting leisurely and freely with our wives lest some Divine inspiration might be revealed concerning us. But when the Prophet had died, we started chatting leisurely and freely (with them).
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet used to pass by (have sexual relation with) all his wives in one night, and at that time he had nine wives.
Narrated Qatada: Anas bin Malik said, "The Prophet used to visit all his wives in a round, during the day and night and they were eleven in number." I asked Anas, "Had the Prophet the strength for it?" Anas replied, "We used to say that the Prophet was given the strength of thirty (men)." And Sa'id said on the authority of Qatada that Anas had told him about nine wives only (not eleven).
He once said of himself that he had been given the power of forty men in sex.
Jabir reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) saw a woman, and so he came to his wife, Zainab, as she was tanning a leather and had sexual intercourse with her. He then went to his Companions and told them: The woman advances and retires in the shape of a devil, so when one of you sees a woman, he should come to his wife, for that will repel what he feels in his heart.
"These are the names of Muhammad's male slaves: Yakan Abu Sharh, Aflah, 'Ubayd, Dhakwan, Tahman, Mirwan, Hunayn, Sanad, Fadala Yamamin, Anjasha al-Hadi, Mad'am, Karkara, Abu Rafi', Thawban, Ab Kabsha, Salih, Rabah, Yara Nubyan, Fadila, Waqid, Mabur, Abu Waqid, Kasam, Abu 'Ayb, Abu Muwayhiba, Zayd Ibn Haritha, and also a black slave called Mahran, who was re-named (by Muhammad) Safina (`ship')."
Moahmmed's Maid Slaves "are Salma Um Rafi', Maymuna daughter of Abu Asib, Maymuna daughter of Sa'd, Khadra, Radwa, Razina, Um Damira, Rayhana, Mary the Coptic, in addition to two other maid-slaves, one of them given to him as a present by his cousin, Zaynab, and the other one captured in a war."
Putting his Saliva on People
Abu Musa reported: I was in the company of Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) as he had been sitting in Ji'rana (a place) between Mecca and Medina and Bilal was also there, that there came to Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) a desert Arab, and he said: Muhammad, fulfill your promise that you made with me. Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said to him: Accept glad tidings. Thereupon the desert Arab said: You shower glad tidings upon me very much; then Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) turned towards Abu Musa and Bilal seemingly in a state of annoyance and said: Verily he has rejected glad tidings but you two should accept them. We said: Allah's Messenger, we have readily accepted them. Then Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) called for a cup of water and washed his hands in that and face too and put the saliva in it and then said: Drink out of it and pour it over your faces and over your chest and gladden yourselves.
They took hold of the cup and did as Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) had commanded them to do. Thereupon Umm Salama called from behind the veil: Spare some water in your vessel for your mother also, and they also gave some water which had been spared for her.
On child's face:
Narrated Mahmud bin Rabi`a:
When I was a boy of five, I remember, the Prophet (ﷺ) took water from a bucket (used for getting water out of a well) with his mouth and threw it on my face.
In child's mouth:
The first child who was born in the Islamic Land (i.e. Medina) amongst the Emigrants, was `Abdullah bin Az-Zubair. They brought him to the Prophet. The Prophet (ﷺ) took a date, and after chewing it, put its juice in his mouth. So the first thing that went into the child's stomach, was the saliva of the Prophet.
In Abdullah b. Zubair's mouth:
We took 'Abdullah b. Zubair to Allah's Apostle (ﷺ) so that he should put saliva in his mouth and we had to make a good deal of effort in order to procure them.
On wounded person:
Narrated Yazid bin Abi Ubaid:
I saw the trace of a wound in Salama's leg. I said to him, "O Abu Muslim! What is this wound?" He said, "This was inflicted on me on the day of Khaibar and the people said, 'Salama has been wounded.' Then I went to the Prophet (ﷺ) and he puffed his saliva in it (i.e. the wound) thrice
., and since then I have not had any pain in it till this hour."
On dead people:
The Prophet (ﷺ) came to (the grave of) `Abdullah bin Ubai after his body was buried. The body was brought out and then the Prophet (ﷺ) put his saliva over the body
and clothed it in his shirt.
Sahl b. Sa'd reported that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said on the Day of Khaibar: I would certainly give this standard to a person at whose hand Allah would grant victory and who loves Allah and His Messenger and Allah and His Messenger love him also. The people spent the night thinking as to whom it would be given. When it was morning the people hastened to Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) all of them hoping that that would be given to him. He (the Holy Prophet) said: Where is 'Ali b. Abu Talib? They said: Allah's Messenger, his eyes are sore. He then sent for him and he was brought and Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) applied saliva to his eyes and invoked blessings and he was all right
, as if he had no ailment at all, and conferred upon him the standard. 'Ali said: Allah's Messenger, I will fight them until they are like us. Thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Advance cautiously until you reach their open places, thereafter invite them to Islam and inform them what is obligatory for them from the rights of Allah, for, by Allah, if Allah guides aright even one person through you that is better for you than to possess the most valuable of the camels.
...But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while and the Prophet (Mohammad) became so sad as we have heard that he intended several times to throw himself from the tops of high mountains and every time he went up the top of a mountain in order to throw himself down, Gabriel would appear before him and say, "O Muhammad! You are indeed Allah's Apostle in truth" whereupon his heart would become quiet and he would calm down and would return home. And whenever the period of the coming of the inspiration used to become long, he would do as before, but when he used to reach the top of a mountain, Gabriel would appear before him and say to him what he had said before.
Terror in War
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "I have been sent with the shortest expressions bearing the widest meanings, and I have been made victorious with terror (cast in the hearts of the enemy)
, and while I was sleeping, the keys of the treasures of the world were brought to me and put in my hand." Abu Huraira added: Allah's Apostle has left the world and now you, people, are bringing out those treasures (i.e. the Prophet did not benefit by them).
The apostle said, 'Get him away and cut off his tongue from me,' so they gave him (camels) until he was satisfied, this being what the apostle meant by his order.
Ibn Ishaq (d. 768); Ibn Hisham (d. 833), A. Guillaume, ed, The Life of Muhammad [Sirat Rasul Allah], Oxford UP, p. 595, ISBN 0-19-636033-1, 1955, https://archive.org/details/GuillaumeATheLifeOfMuhammad/page/n1/mode/2up ابن إسحاق; ابن هشام, سيرة ابن هشام ت السقا, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 494, https://app.turath.io/book/23833
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "No prayer is harder for the hypocrites than the Fajr and the 'Isha' prayers and if they knew the reward for these prayers at their respective times, they would certainly present themselves (in the mosques) even if they had to c awl." The Prophet added, "Certainly I decided to order the Mu'adh-dhin (call-maker) to pronounce Iqama and order a man to lead the prayer and then take a fire flame to burn all those who had not left their houses so far for the prayer along with their houses.
In this year, according to all the Sirah-writers, the Messenger of God personally led the expedition of Al-Abwa', or, as it is sometimes called, Waddan; the two places are six miles apart and opposite one another " When he went there, the Messenger of God left Sa'd b. 'Ubadah b. Dulaym in command of Medina ' On this expedition his banner was carried b y Hamzah b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, and was, it is said, white.
Al-Waqidi asserts that he stayed there for fifteen days and then returned to Medina.
According to Al-Waqidi: Then the Messenger of God went on an expedition at the head of two hundred of his companions in the month of Rabi' al-Akhir (which began October 2, 623), and reached Buwat. His intention was to intercept the caravan of Quraysh, led by Umayyah b. Khalaf with a hundred men of Quraysh and two thousand five hundred camels. In the end he returned to Medina without fighting. His banner was carried by Sa'd b. Abi Waggas, and he left Sa'd b. Mu'adh in command of Medina during this expedition.
al-Tabari (d. 923), W. Montgomery Watt; M. V. McDonald, eds, The History of al-Tabari [Ta’rikh al-rusul wa’l-muluk], vol. VII, SUNY Press, p. 15, ISBN 0-88706-344-6, 1987, https://archive.org/details/HistoryAlTabari40Vol/History_Al-Tabari_10_Vol/page/n1805/mode/2up أبو جعفر الطبري, تاريخ الرسل والملوك, vol. 2, al-Maktabah al-Shamilah, p. 407, https://app.turath.io/book/9783
Narrated Anas bin Malik: While we were sitting with the Prophet in the mosque, a man came riding on a camel. He made his camel kneel down in the mosque, tied its foreleg and then said: "Who amongst you is Muhammad?" At that time the Prophet was sitting amongst us (his companions) leaning on his arm. We replied, "This white man reclining on his arm."
The an then addressed him, "O Son of 'Abdul Muttalib."...
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Whenever a dead man in debt was brought to Allah's Apostle he would ask, "Has he left anything to repay his debt?" If he was informed that he had left something to repay his debts, he would offer his funeral prayer, otherwise he would tell the Muslims to offer their friend's funeral prayer. When Allah made the Prophet wealthy through conquests
, he said, "I am more rightful than other believers to be the guardian of the believers, so if a Muslim dies while in debt, I am responsible for the repayment of his debt, and whoever leaves wealth (after his death) it will belong to his heirs."
Narrated Umar ibn al-Khattab:
Malik ibn Aws al-Hadthan said: One of the arguments put forward by Umar was that he said that the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) received three things exclusively to himself: Banu an-Nadir, Khaybar and Fadak. The Banu an-Nadir property was kept wholly for his emergent needs
, Fadak for travellers, and Khaybar was divided by the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) into three sections: two for Muslims, and one as a contribution for his family. If anything remained after making the contribution of his family, he divided it among the poor Emigrants.
Some of Muhammad's companions also became wealthy:
Narrated Abu Masud Al-Ansar: Whenever Allah's Apostle (p.b.u.h) ordered us to give in charity, we used to go to the market and work as porters and get a Mudd (a special measure of grain) and then give it in charity. (Those were the days of poverty) and today some of us have one hundred thousand.
Hurting his Wife
... He (Muhammad b. Qais) then reported that it was 'A'isha who had narrated this: Should I not narrate to you about myself and about the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him)? We said: Yes. She said: When it was my turn for Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) to spend the night with me, he turned his side, put on his mantle and took off his shoes and placed them near his feet, and spread the corner of his shawl on his bed and then lay down till he thought that I had gone to sleep. He took hold of his mantle slowly and put on the shoes slowly, and opened the door and went out and then closed it lightly. I covered my head, put on my veil and tightened my waist wrapper, and then went out following his steps till he reached Baqi'. He stood there and he stood for a long time. He then lifted his hands three times, and then returned and I also returned. He hastened his steps and I also hastened my steps. He ran and I too ran. He came (to the house) and I also came (to the house). I, however, preceded him and I entered (the house), and as I lay down in the bed, he (the Holy Prophet) entered the (house), and said: Why is it, O 'A'isha, that you are out of breath? I said: There is nothing. He said: Tell me or the Subtle and the Aware would inform me. I said: Messenger of Allah, may my father and mother be ransom for you, and then I told him (the whole story). He said: Was it the darkness (of your shadow) that I saw in front of me? I said: Yes. He struck me on the chest which caused me pain
, and then said: Did you think that Allah and His Apostle would deal unjustly with you?..."
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- ↑ "Noun • (n) anti-Semitism, antisemitism (the intense dislike for and prejudice against Jewish people)" - Definition - Antisemitism, Princeton University's WordNet
- ↑ "Function: noun hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group" - Definition - Anti-Semitism, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
- ↑ Sihr means "magic" and the la- prefix means "surely". The Qur'an uses the word la-sihr in verse 10:76. Arabic doesn't use "is" like English.
- ↑ Ibn Kathir, Qisas al-Anbiya [Cairo: Dar al-Kutub, 1968/1388], p. 381- as cited in Aliah Schleifer's Mary The Blessed Virgin of Islam [Fons Vitae; ISBN: 1887752021; July 1, 1998], p. 64;
- ↑ The Translation of the Meanings of Sahih Al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Vol.IV (page 104) by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Islamic University—Al-Medina Al-Munauwara
- ↑ Mohammad Ibn Saad, al-Tabakat al- Kobra, Dar al-Tahrir, Cairo, 1970, Vol 8, p. 139.
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Zad al-Ma'ad, Part 1, pp. 114-116